Biodiviersity and Ecosystems (Sustainable Food Production (Fish stocks in…
Biodiviersity and Ecosystems
The Human Population Explosion
Biodiversity is the variety of all the different species of organisms on Earth, or within an ecosystem
High biodiversity helps to ensure the stability of ecosystems by reducing the dependence of one species on another for food, shelter and the maintenance of physical environment
Humans reduce the amount of land available for other animals and plants by biulding quarrying farming and dumping waste
The future of the human species on Earth relies on us maintaining a good level of biodiversity. Many human actrivities are reducing biodiversity and onlyu recently have measures been made to address the problem
Rapid growth inthe human population and an increase in the standard of living mean that ever more resourced are used and more waste is produced
Land and Water Pollution
Unless wate and chemical materials are properly handled more pollution will be caused
Pollution can occur on land from landfill, and from toxi chemicals such aas pesticides and herbicides which may also be washed from land to water.
Pollution can occur in water from sewage fertiliers or toxic chemicals
pollutions kills planst and animals which can reduce biodiversity
Pollution can occur in the air from smoke and from acidic gases
Air pollution kills plants and animals which can reduce biodiversity
Deforestation and Peat Destruction
Large-scale deforestation in tropica areas has occured to provide land for cattle and for rice fields as well as to grow crops for biofuels
The destruction of peat bogs and other ares of peat to produce garden compost reduces the area of this habitat and thus the biodiversity associated with it.
The decay or burning of peat releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere
Levels of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere are increasing and contribute to global warming
Biological consquences of global warming include loss of habitat when low lying areas are flooded by rising sea levels chages in the distribution patterns of species in the ares where temperature or rainfall has changed and changes tr o the migration patterns of animals.
The Impact of Change
Environmental changes such as the availability of water, temperature and the compositio of the atmosphere affect he distribution of species in a n ecosystem
These changes may be seasonal geographical or casued by human interaction
Scientists are concerned citizerns have put programmes in plce to reduce the negative effects on ecosystems and biodiversity
Trophic Levels and Biomass
Trophic levels can be represented by numbers starting at levels 1
Most producers are plants and algae that tranfer about 1% of the incident energy from the light for photsynthesis
Only approx 10% of the biomass from each trophic level is transfered to the one above it.
Losses of biomass occur because not all material is absorbed - some is egested as faeces some is absorbed materialis lost as waste products such as carbon dioxide and water in respiration and water in the urea in urine and large amounts of glucose are sued in respiration
Factors Affecting Food Security
Food security is having enough food to feed a population
Factors affecting food security include: increasing birth rates, changing diets in developed countries resulting in scarce food resouces being transported around the world, new pests and pathogens, environmehntal changes affecting food production, the cost of agricultural inputs and conflicts affect aces to water or food.
Making Food Production Efficient
The efficiency of food production can be improved by restricing energy tranfer from food animals to the envrionment. This can be done by limiting their movement and by controlling the temperature of their surroundings.
Some animals are fed high-protein foods ot increase growth
Sustainable Food Production
Fish stocks in the oceans are declining. it is important to maintain fish stocks at a level where breeding continues or certain species may disapear altogether
Control of net size and the introduction of fishing quotes play important roles in conserving fish stocks at a sustainable level.
Modern biotechnology techniques enable large quantities of microorgansism to be cultured for food
is useful for producing mycoprotein a protein rich food suitable for vegetarians. The fungus is grown on glucose syrup in aerobic conditions and ithe biomass is harvested and purified
Genetically modified bacteria produce drugs such as insulin on an industrial scale
Geneticlly modified crops could provide more food or food with an improved nutitional value.