Chemistry 2nd Semester Exam Review (Hydrogen: Atomic Number (1) Number of…
Chemistry 2nd Semester Exam Review
Hydrogen: Atomic Number (1) Number of Protons (1) Number of electrons(1) Number of Neutrons(0) Mass Number(1) Average atomic mass( 1)
How many electrons can be found in each of the orbitals in the atom?: s orbital (2 found 1s
) (p orbital: 6 found 2p
) ( d orbital 10 found 3d
) ( f orbital 14 found 4s
) HUND'S RULE
cations and anions: cation = positive ions lose electrons. and anions = negative ions and gain electrons.
ELEMENT ( beryllium) 4 electrons (1s2 2s2 ).
The ten different prefixes used in naming binary molecular compounds. ( 1. mono-) (2 Di-) (3 tri-) (4 Tetra- ) (5. penta-) (6. Hexa-) (7. Hepta-) (8. octa-) ( 9. Nona-) (10. Deca-)
the symbols in there ionic state. ( lithium Li+2) (boron B+3) (Oxygen O-2 or O2-) (sulfur S-2 or S2-) (calcium Ca+2 or Ca2+) ( Iodine I-1 or I1-).
group1: (lose 1 electron) group 2: lose 2 electrons) (group 3: lose 3 electrons) (group 6:gain: 2 electrons) ( group 7: gain 1 electron) (group 8: gain 0 electrons because it's noble gasses.
electronegativity: it attracts electrons)
what are valence electrons: electrons in the highest energy level.
How can you determine the number of valence electrons in the atom? Group #.
what is the octet rule: RULE OF 8!
ionic compound is consists with metal and nonmetal. molecular compounds consists with nonmetal and nonmetal.
what are polyatomic ions: more than 1 element combined and having a net charge. Example: sulfate So4-2.
what are the lewis dot diagram: only 8 dots are allowed. you can have a single bond, a double bond ,and a triple bond.
write the formulas for the following compounds containing polyatomic ions? Chromium (III) Nitrite. Cr+3 (No2)-1 ----> Cr(No2)3
molecular compounds: NCl3 ----> Nitrogen trichloride. SO3 ----> Sulfur trioxide. BCl3 -----> Boron trichloride. N2O3 ----> DiNitrogen trioxide. N2H4 ----> Dinitrogen tetrahydride.
write the formulas of the following binary molecular compounds? Example: Phosphorus pentachloride ---> Pcl5. Iodine heptafluoride ----> IF7. Chlorine trifluoride ----> ClF3.
the difference between a reactant and a product is that a reactant is on the left side of the part and the product is on the right side. Reactant ------> Product
what is the law of conservation of mass? Mass can't be created or destroyed.
what is a coordinate bond? when one atom contributes two electrons to complete the octet rule.
what is the VSEPR theory: Valenced, Shell , Electron , Pair Repulsion theory.
what is a polar bond: bond between 2 nonmetals with different electronegativities.
transition metals: most likely have a roman numeral. ( Example: Iron (III) ----> Fe3+) (Iron (II) ----> Fe2+).
properties of ionic compounds: high melting point, and high boiling point. ( metal and nonmetal) . Brrittle.
in ionic compounds and molecular compounds will always end with the ending (IDE). Example: sodium chloride metal and nonmetal.
the correct formulas and names for the compounds formed form each pair ions. ( K+, S2) --> Potassium sulfide. ( Na+, O2- ) ---> sodium oxide.
what are chemical reactions? what are the 5 different signs that a chemical reaction has occurred? (changes in a substance chemically). (1. color change) (2.precipitate) (3.temp change) (4. formation of a gas) (5. Smell).
5 types of chemical reactions? Combination, combustion, Decomposition, single replacement, and double replacement.
single replacement has one single atom on both sides. Double replacement has two atoms on both sides of the equation.
in a single covalent bond there are 2. in a double covalent bond there is 4. in a triple covalent bond there is 6.
what is Avogadro's Number (aka a mole). 6.02x1022
what is the molar mass of C6H12O6? C=6 H=12 O=6 . C=6x12=
what is the kinetic theory of matter? all particles are in a constant motion. NO MOVEMENT AT THE TEMP ABSOLUTE 0
solid particles stay in one spot but moves constantly in the same position. liquid particles move fast and in kinda of the same position. gas particles are fast and move around the container. the particles energy will increase going from solid to gas.
what causes pressure in a gas? the amount of particles are put in a small space or tight place.
the three temperature scales are 1. Kelvin 2. celcius 3. fahrenheit.
the motion of the particles in a piece of aluminum? vibrating but not out of place in one spot moving really fast.
what is the key difference between a slid, liquid , and a gas? the amount of energy it has to tell if it is a solid liquid or gas.