Unit 3 - Resource Consumption and Security (Global Trends in Consumption…
Unit 3 - Resource Consumption and Security
Global Trends in Consumption
Trends in availability & consumption of land /food/ energy
growth rates of of food production and crop yield trends
The 3 ways of increasing crop production
non-renewable energy:example fossil fuels, and renewable energy: sources include solar, hydroelectric, geothermal, biomass and tidal schemes
oil reserves:USA has to source much of its oil from overseas, notably the Middle East
reasons why energy indecurity has risen
past energy security to energy insecurity in the 2000s
trends of calorie intake
increasing urbanization and the fast food industry
change in diet from cereals towards a varied diet (meat consumption per capita)
advantages and disadvantages of fossil fuels
Hydroelectric Power (HEP)
Ecological Footprint :pencil2:
Hypothetical area of land required by society, a group or an intvidual to fulfill all their resource needs and assimilate all their wastes
Model for monitoring environmental impact
All for direct comparisons between groups and indivdiuals such as comparing LICs and HICS
Highlight sustainable/unsustainable lifestyles
Ex: Populations with a large footprint than their land are are living beyond sustainable limits
Calculating Ecological Footprints :smiley:
Approximation - Using only net carbon dioxide emissions
Bioproductive - Land used for food and materials such as farmland, gardens, pasture and managed forest
Bioproductive sea - the sea area used for human consumption
Energy Land - An equivalent amount of land that would be required to support renewable energy instead of non-renewable energy. Amount of energy land depends on the method of energy generation and is difficult to estimate for the planet
Built (consumed) Land - Land used for development, such as roads and buildings
Biodiversity Land - Land required to support all non-human species
Non-Productive Land - Land such as deserts, subtracted from the total land available
Water Availability and Consumption
Virtual Water - The concept of virtual water (or embedded) water refers to the way in which water is transferred from one country to another through its exports.
Water use in the two main income groups of counties and the world.
Patterns and trends - Water is unevenly distributed over the world; over 780 million people do not have access to safe water.
Poverty Reduction and the global middle class
Middle class population tripled between 1900 to 2015. Due to increase in average incomes and fall in the number of people living in absolute poverty. This helps sales of goods.
Millennium development Goals:
successfully reduces extreme poverty (2000- 2015)
Case study: Food, Water and Energy Security in South Asia
3.2 Impact of changing Trends in resource consumption
The Disposal & Recycling of Waste
Waste Management Strategies
Alter human activity to to reduce consumption and composting food waste
Control release of pollutants
Encourage recycling and reusing
Types of Waste
: Informal landfill - no planning, no under-layer, throwing waste anywhere, not containment, more of a communal idea/action
: Separation plan, teaching people about it, the cost is higher, is it worth it? glass and metal are easier than paper and plastic.
: a controlled method of burning the rubbish/garbage, increased chemicals from burning plastics and other things
Reduce & Reuse
: Reuse is more energy and resource efficient than recycling while reduction includes using less energy
: the decomposition of biodegradable matter ie. food, soil, plant-matter
: When living near landfills there are increased health risks and implications, it will fill up eventually
The amount of waste produced is increasing
Household waste is composed of a wide variety of materials
HICs generate more waste than LICs
The amount of waste is predicted to increase due to climate change, growing middle class and increasing consumption of food and other supplies
E - Waste
Cons of E - Waste
Toxic substances are exposed to the environments and the workers
Most E-Waste is being dumped illegally
Global production of E-Waste is estimated to increase by 33%
Fewer than 10% of phones are being reused to obtain the special metal within the phones
Cost more to processes it than ship it
Pros of E - Waste
May contain valuable metals
You can deal with it at the source faster
Increase in jobs
The water-food-energy Nexus
The interrelationship and interdependence and interactions between water, food and energy. Changes in one sector can have impacts on the others.
Climate Change & the Nexus
Climate change could affect the nexus in many different ways. It could reduce agricultural productivity in some areas and in other areas it may increase it.
Water supplies could decrease and in some areas increase
It is expected that climate change will increase the frequency of climate-related shocks which will then have an impact on the food, water and energy supplies.
Climate change will influence food availability, crop yields, water availability, and the need for irrigation
Climate change will influence the distribution of pests and diseases
Higher temperatures and evapotranspiration rates will reduce water supplies and increase the need for pumping and purification of water.
The production of biofuels and hydroelectric power may create new demands for water resources.