The science of cooking food Key terms (AGITATE - to stir, shake or…
The science of cooking food
HEAT TRANSFER - the way heat moves from one area to another through conduction, convection and radiation
DENATURATION - the process of altering a protein's molecular characteristics or properties by heat, enzyme action, or chemicals.
COMPOSITION - the different parts of substances that make up something
CONDUCTION - heat is transferred between two surfaces by direct contact, and molecules in each surface pass heat to each other
COAGULATION - a irreversible change to proteins from a liquid or semi-liquid state to a solid state
EMULSION - a fine dispersion of minute droplets of one liquid in another
MAILLARD REACTION - a chemical reaction between a protein and a carbohydrate in the presence of dry heat
CONVECTION - heat is transferred by the circulation of either a heated liquid or gas
SEAR - to scorch the surface of food with a sudden, intense heat
RADIANT HEAT - in the form of infra-red waves, can be applied above or below the food with the heat transferring to the surface of the food
AGITATE - to stir, shake or disturb a liquid
FRICTION - the action of one surface or object rubbing against another
pH VALUE - the measurement of the acidity of a liquid substance
GELATINISATION - the process where starch and water are heated causing the starch granules to swell. The water is gradually absorbed in an irreversible manner. This produces a viscous texture to food.
MAGNETRON - the part of the microwave oven that generates the microwave radiation
OXIDISE - to undergo a chemical reaction with oxygen resulting in food losing freshness and colour
DEXTRINISATION - the browning that occurs when foods containing starch are cooked, or exposed to an alkali, acid or enzyme.
CARAMELISATION - a change in the food's molecular structure due to the removal of water resulting in a nutty flavour and brown colour
ENZYMIC BROWNING - a chemical process where oxygen and enzymes in the food react to cause the cut surface to become brown. This process cannot be reversed
MYOGLOBIN - a protein that stores oxygen in muscle cells of animals