Post-February 1917 Revolution (Events after the emergence of the soviets…
Post-February 1917 Revolution
Where were the major Bolsheviks?
Lenin - Zurich
Social Democrats - Zurich
Julius Martov - Zurich
Leon Trotsky - New York
Viktor Chernov - Paris
What is a soviet?
They had appeared in Russia at the 1905 Revolution and were literal 'councils'
Not supportive of one particular party, wasn't originally a party
Soviets sprang up in many cities and towns after the revolution
Events after the emergence of the soviets
Nicholas never returned to Petrograd (train diverted)
Tsar under pressure by Alexeev to resign
Petrograd Soviet took title 'Soviet of Workers'
PSoviet had 3000 members. It recognised a provisional government formed by members of the Duma
On 2nd March, Nicholas agreed to demands- Grand Duke Mikhail named as successor but he refused
Tsar and his family placed under house arrest
What was the Provisional Government?
Prince Lvov (wealthy aristocrat) was the leader
It favoured constitutional monarchy
Meant to be temporary, elections would be held as soon as possible for new constituent assembly
Consisted of liberals, moderate socialists and cadets
Who were the members of the P.G?
Prince Lvov (leader)
Milyukov (foreign minister)
Guchkov (minister of war)
Konovalov (minister of trade)
Kerensky (minister of justice)
What was the long term plan for the government?
Accepted by Mikhail by old tsarist civil service, army officers + police
Set up in Duma Chamber, Tauride Palace
What issues did the PG face and what was the result?
War was deeply unpopular
Alliance difficulties with Britain and France
Revolutionaries would win election if there was one
Key policy changes e.g Land redistribution to peasants should await a constituent assembly
Bourgeois revolution proceeded
Who made up the P.S?
Workers, Soldiers, Peasants
Exec Committee = radical socialist intellectuals, Mensheviks, Bolsheviks, SR's.
7/42 committee members were ACTUALLY workers
Kerensky was a member of both the PG and the PS
What was promised to the Soviet was the PG in their alliance?
General Amnesty for political prisoners
The abolition of legal disabilities based on class, religion and nationality
Freedom to organise trade unions and to strike
election of a constituent assembly to determine Russia's future
What frictions existed?
Order No.1 - Soldiers and workers should obey the PG, but only when the soviet agreed
PG tried to discipline army deserters and restore order in towns and countryside, soviet encouraged peasants and workers to defy authority and assert their rights.
PG wanted to continue war (debts to France and Britain) whereas soviets wanted to end quickly without annexation of territory by the germans as price of peace
What changes occurred in personnel April - July?
Milyukov announced 'just peace' fighting plan. Protests lead to his resignation as well as Guchkov in May
Chernov = minister of agriculture
Kerensky = minister of war
Lvov replaced by Kerensky as Chairman in July 1917