Attachment summary pt 1 (Caregiver - infant interaction (Description…
Attachment summary pt 1
Caregiver - infant interaction
Reciprocity - taking turns an in a conversation (e.g. Jaffe et al.).
Brazelton - mother anticipates infant signals, basis of attachment
Interaction synchrony - coordinated behaviour
Meltzoff and Moore - 3-day old babies imitate mothers
Piaget - behaviour is pseudo-imitation (operant conditioning)
Murray and Trevarthen - infant distress if no response,supports innateness.
Testing infant behaviour is difficult as they are in constant motion
Failure to replicate Meltzoff and Moore, e.g. Marian et al. (live vs taped interactions).
Individual differences - security of attachment associated with interactional synchrony (Isabella et al.)
'Like me' hypothesis (Meltzoff) - interactional synchrony leads to Theory of Mind.
The development of attachment
Schaffer and Emerson studied 60 infants and mothers from Glasgow
Stage 1: indiscriminate attachments
Stage 2: beginnings of attachment
Stage 3: specific attachment
Stage 4: multiple attachments
The role of the father - changing social practices; increased exposure might lead to primary attachments
Biological factors - women have hormones which encourage caringness
Nevertheless men are primary attachment figures or share this role (Frank et al.)
Unreliable data - mothers of less securely attached infants would be less sensitive and possibly less accurate in their reports, a systematic bias
Biased sample - working-class population from 1960s results may not generalise.
Multiple attachment - Rutter argued that all relationships equivalent.
Cultural variations - Sagi et al.
Stage theories of development - may be too inflexible
Animal studies of attachment
Lorenz - procedure - goose eggs incubated so first living thing they saw was their natural mother or Lorenz
Findings - goslings imprinted on Lorenz and followed him
Critical period - imprinting doesn't happen later
Long-lasting effects- irreversible and related to mate choice (sexual imprinting).
Research support - Guiton et al.
Imprinting issues - may not be irreversible and may be little more than just learning.
Animal Studies Of Attachment
Harlow: procedure - wire 'mothers', one cloth covered. Feeding bottle attached to one another
Findings - monkeys spent most with cloth-covered 'mother', whether or not feeding bottle attached.
Critical period - attachments must be formed before 6 months.
Long-lasting effects - all motherless monkeys were abnormal socially and sexually.