The Gerund, Functions (Adverbial modifier (Time(AFTER, BEFORE, ON, IN,…
He was born with the gift of winning hearts.
Time(AFTER, BEFORE, ON, IN, AT)
Brush you teeth before going to bed.
Manner(prep. BY or IN)
She startled her father by bursting into tears.
He went out without saying a single word.
I will not be able to do it without being helped.
He feels much better for having spent Summer in the country.
Concession(IN SPITE OF)
He always finds time to play with his son in spite of being busy.
He talked them into investing in his project.
Finding them became his main goal.
The only remedy for such a headache as mine is going to bed.
He coulnd't help crying.
The Indefinite Gerund
both Active and Passive denotes an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb
He works for many hours without stopping.
The Perfect Gerund
expresses an action prior to that expressed by the finite verb
He denies having stolen the papers.
is a non-finite form of the verb which has both noun and verb characteristics.