SA WATER QUALITY (3. Possible Procedures (Salinity (Salinity testing kit,…
SA WATER QUALITY
1. General Statement: How does it compare to National Guidelines?
Refers to Australian guidelines
Comparing SA to other states
How does SA water quality compare to its own standards?
Purpose of water usage
Industrial and domestic use
Health of biodiversity
Sources of water samples to be tested
What is quality?
How is it measured?
Do we need special equipment/technology?
Why does water need to be of quality?
The chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water
Measuring condition of water relative to requirements of a biotic species and or any human need/purpose
How can we compare?
Rating the suitability of water
By testing samples from various sources and judging the quality according to the standards
2. Background Knowledge
Purpose of various water quality tests
Heavy metals like Al, Va, As, Be, Cu, Hg, Zn, Pb etc. are not naturally occurring. Harmful when consumed--> affect kidneys, liver, nervous system and bone structure. In humans, causes cause many health issues
Determines the rate of biochemical reaction in an aquatic environment
If temperature is too high, this restricts no. reactions from occurring and limits water's ability to hold oxygen
Decreases organisms resistance to some pollutants, decreasing microorganism biodiversity
Measuring total non-carbonated salts dissolved in groundwater indicates how salty topsoil may become if water table rises
This is an indicator of microorganism/water health because aquatic life requires oxygen for cellular respiration
Dissolved Oxygen has an effect on the taste of the water
Usually in fresh and salt water but too much indicates minerals dissolving and industrial pollution
Measuring amount of particulate matter suspended in water/water clarity indicates the effectiveness of photosynthesis in that region because high levels of turbidity prevents light from penetrating the water and increases water temperature
Other chemical tests
These chemicals affect
Determine methane, carbon dioxide, Cyanide oxygen and nitrogen and many other volatile components
measure Li, NH4 and many other low molecular weight ions using ion exchange technology
Most aquatic organisms can only survive within a pH range of 6 to 8
Essential nutrients for aquatic plants.High levels indicate health of plant life. But too much due to detergent, fertilisers and sewage can cause eutrophication--> causes algal blooms
Consumption of pesticides is harmful to both plant life and humans. Concentration levels indicate water health and safety
Indicates redox potential of solution--> indicating electron activity and microorganism growth
What are factors affecting water quality?
Presence of metal ions
Diversity of microbiology
Plant life growth
Dissolved organic matter
Safe for human consumption
Taste + odour
Nitrate + Phosphate
Importance of water quality
3. Possible Procedures
Salinity testing kit
Electrical conductivity test using conductivity sensor
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
ion exchange technolgy
Will give most accurate reading to 2 decimal places
Dissolved Oxygen sensor
Methane, CO2 test
Redox electron activity
Nitrate testing kit
Phosphate testing kit