unit3 ( from ‘modernist’ certainty to ‘postmodern’ uncertainty (第一個…
from ‘modernist’ certainty to
three assumption of penal-welfare state
crime as being symptoms of deep seated social problem
crime control is a matter of expert knowledge for expert
crime was unproblematic
第一個 dynamic economic,social and cultural change : advent of postmodernity
2. Changes in family structure and family relationships
The standard of the traditional nuclear family (a married couples
living with their children) has also been gradually dissolving.
3. change in social ecology of cities and suburbs.
well-off residents to migrate from the decaying inner cities to suburban areas. decay of the inner city, turning them into ghettos.
. the modernizing dynamic of capitalist production resultant rise in consumerism.
transformation of technology, transportation and communication >>> new forms of inequality & marginalized people who have not been able to accumulate wealth
4. The social impact of the electronic mass media
greater level of transparency in social and governmental institutions
5. Democratization of social life reflected in changing relations between men/women, parents/children, and employers/workers
Individualism and pluralistic cultures.
1.3 these institutions with the ‘
’ who managed them to carry out public order governance exclusively and with certainty
第二個:Increases in recorded crime rates and an increased awareness of
new questions over the ‘discovery’ of ‘hidden’ crimes e.g. DV, sexual and physical offences against children
existing criminal justice system then began to be considered inadequate for dealing with the situation
1.more conscious of the possibility of being a crime victim
1.1 police, prisons and law courts undertook the management of crime and disorder. (‘products of modernity)
第三個The influence of the New Right
increased private enterprise and individual responsibility
1.emphasizes the freedom of the individual and the primacy of the free market
EG HONG KONG GOV
modernist certainty; the exclusive management of disorder by police, courts and prison
第四個:The increasing popularization of the social media and mobile
incidents of malpractice are now much more visible to the public and are thus more likely to be subject to public scrutiny
第6個Shifting public order responsibility from the state to‘consumers’
第5個:Centralization of control
NPM brought along with it a tightening of central control over the police
Approaches to ‘image work’
A dialogical approach:is inclusive and that takes account of the opinions, values and concerns of all parties in the communication process, and also those who are close to the subject matter of the communication.
: in which the management of the police’s image has not been appreciated as strategically significant, and therefore is conducted on a mundane bureaucratic basis
A missionaryy approach : that is persuasive, seeking a conversation intended to shape public opinion, but which is conducted in a pedagogic one-way form of communication
2.A misrepresentative approach :that is characterized by systematic misrepresentation of what is communicated, and how it is communicated. In this approach, the policing agency usually exercises strong control over the substance of the media image, as well as the method of communication
Globalization and its pervasive influence(Four aspects of globalization)
Local social relations and the fate of particular places are being reconfigured: mobility of people
Sovereign authority is no longer the sole prerogative of nation states
with an emphasis on territorial boundariese.g. The establishment of international and intergovernmental organizations such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) and World Health Organization (WHO)
1.issue of networks and flows — movements in capital, goods, people, symbols and information across formerly separate national contexts.
new social cleavages, insecurities and inequalities
Globalization and public order
global crime networks
new opportunities for transnational organized and
3.reinforces the risk climate of living in late modern society
consequence of increasing anxiety over crimes:the increase of private security
The notion of the ‘risk society
Minimizing and managing risk in a