Botansuch as, "The purpose of most leaves is y: An Introduction to…
Botansuch as, "The purpose of most leaves is y: An Introduction to Plant Biology
Chapter 1: Introduction to Plants and Botany
Plants Versus the Study of Plants
: are more difficult; they are entirely human constructs based on observations, intuition, previous experience, calculations, and expectations
: the active acquisition of information from a primary source
: after a hypothesis has been confirmed by numerous observations or experiments, it is considered to be a theory
: a model of a phenomenon constructed from observations of the phenomenon
It must make testable predictions about the outcome of future observations or experiments.
: a means of analyzing the physical universe
Anything that can never be verified cannot be accepted as part of a scientific hypothesis.
Observations are used as the basis for constructing a hypothesis that predicts the outcome of future observations or experiments.
Diversity of Plant Adaptations
Using Concepts to Understand Plants
Plants do not have purpose or decision-making capacity.
: the interpretation that objects and processes have a purpose
Such as, "The purpose of most leaves is photosynthesis," in contrast to a statement of fact such as, "Most leaves carry out photosynthesis."
: attributing to plants certain capacities that only humans have, such as decision-making
An individual plant is the temporary result of the interaction of genes and environment.
Plants are highly integrated organisms.
Plant metabolism is based on the principles of chemistry and physics.
Plants must survive in their own environment.
Plants must have a means of storing and using information.
Genes,and the information they contain, change.
Plants reproduce, passing their genes and information on to their descendants.
Origin and Evolution of Plants
: all living organisms are now classified as belonging to one of three largest clades called domains
: the preferential survival, in natural conditions, of those individuals whose alleles cause them to be more adapted than other individuals with different alleles
: present in one (autapomorphy) or several (synapomorphy) derived members of a group, but which is not present in the ancestral members
: a feature that occurs in a modern organism and was inherited relatively unchanged from an ancient ancestor
: features present in modern organisms but not in their ancestors
: a feature that was present in a taxon's ancestors; often referred to as relictual or primitive features
Incompleteness diminishes. Inaccuracies are corrected.
Religion cannot explain physical processes.
Science cannot solve moral problems.
Areas Where the Scientific Method Is Inappropriate
: the scientific study of plants
Chapter 2: Overview of Plant Life
Overview of Plant Ecology
Overview of Plant Stucture
: an organ (a set of tissues) that are not involved in reproduction
Ex: leaves, roots, and stems
Overview of Information in Plants
Overview of Plant Metabolism
Overview of Plant Diversity and Evolution
More technically known as