Unit 7: Why do events in the Persian Gulf matter? (Rise of Saddam ( Born…
Unit 7: Why do events in the Persian Gulf matter?
Rise of Saddam
Born into a poor family and no education with a mother and a step-father.
Step-father had him involved in crimes, and he later
killed a Government official
, made him go to school and taught him political ideas like '
Saddam joined the Ba'ath Party, and was admired for being very willing to do violent actions. He was asked to kill the
President of Iraq
, but he failed and stayed in
to pursue his education (he was studying to be a
When he came back, he had a relative,
, in the Ba'ath Party that let him in. From there he used violence to rise in the ranks.
became President of Iraq and eventually fell ill, Saddam convinced him to make him President.
Iranian Revolution (1979)
coup of the Shah over Mussadeq left Iean at the hands of British and US interests, because the CIA & MI6 aided the Shah. No support from Iranian people.
Shah began to westernize Iran by importing food from US and introducing US style shopping malls, hurting local farmers and merchants in the process.
Modernization supposed to aid Education, Health, Land reforms, & Industrial expansion.
most villages lacked running water, electricity, & roads
infant mortality & doctor-patient ratio are really high
adult illiteracy stayed high, & few people went to college
Income Inequality/Government Repression
Rich got richer, but the poor went extremely poor.
Spent billions on military growth, decided on a one party system in Iran and Shah relied on secret police to keep opposition quiet.
Shah made enemies, and they were brought together by Ayatollah Khomeini.
Ayatollah lived in exile for 15 years in France for criticizing the Shah.
Ayatollah sent speeches across the order to speak out on the Shah supporting Israel, neglecting the poor & wanting all $$ on the military.
Came back to Iran after the Shah left and was accepted as the new Islamic state.
Shatt al-Arab waterway
Waterway important to Iran & Iraq for oil exports.
Especially important to Iraq as its only outlet to the sea.
Arguments of precise Iran/Iraq border ongoing since the 16th century until 1937 treaty made favorite to Iraq until the Shah of Iran denied the treaty in 1969.
South-western Iranian province oil rich with a predominantly non-Persian population.
Saddam claimed right to rule prince & encouraged Arabs to revolt.
Iran encouraged Kurds north in Iraq to retaliate Saddam w/ equipment given to them.
Algiers Agreement (1975)
Saddam knew a war in the early 1970's would lead to Iraqi defeat.
ended support of Kurds
in Iraq, and Iraq
dropped claims to Khuzestan
& **conceded over Iran/Iraq border.
Countries on normalized relations, but it was setback to Saddam.
Before invading Iran in 1980, Saddam renounced the Algiers Agreement.
Domination of the Gulf
Regarded as an age-old contest for power & dominance in Middle East.
Saddam hoped that annexing Khuzestan & renewed control of Shatt al-Arab would increase Iraq's oil revenues to show shift of balance in power between Iraq & Iran.
The Opportunity Provided by the Islamic Revolution
Ayatollah VS Saddam
Western Involvement in the War
Rule of Saddam
Saddam tried 66 officials: 55 found guilty, 22 killed, and the rest were jailed.
War on His Own People
20% of Iraqis are
who wanted independence. 60%
s, while Saddam & Ba'ath Party are
(they don't get along)
: Saddam destroyed 1/2 of homes of Kurds, killing/injuring 10,000's, including poison gas on them. (Over 1 million left Iraq) ~ Northern Iraq
: When they revolted, Saddam killed men, women & children. (Southern Iraq)
Saddam removed the food source for
& launched chemical weapons against them (#'s went from 250,00 to 30,00, so he could put
for their region)
Saddam used propaganda to present himself as a Father of Iraq, including: songs, posters/paintings/statues, autobiographies, radio & TV specials, used doubles to be at several events at once.
1972, Saddam nationalized oil profits.
Saddam used this $$ to raise wages, cut taxes & provide food to increase popularity.
Saddam extended infrastructure: roads, electricity, failroads, radio & TV stations, creation of huge industries.
Saddam used this oil $$ to buy tanks, helicopters, surface to air missiles, hire more soldiers.
Saddam built chemical/biological weapons factories.
tried to expand into nuclear power, but was unsuccessful.
Saddam & a small group of Ba'ath Party & family members made oil decisions in Iraq.
Youth were taught from birth to praise Saddam.
All media was controlled by the Ba'ath Party, no freedom of speech.
All professions required you to be a Ba'ath Party member.