Early Childhood and Emotional development : (Moral Development …
Emotional development :
The Self (Arkam)
Initiative vs Guilt
According to erik erikson, the psychosocial stage that
characterizes early childhood is initiative vs guilt.
By now, children have become their own person.
They have a surplus of energy that permits them to approach new areas that seem desirable even if they seem dangerous.
The great governor of initiative is conscience. Children now not only feel afraid of being found out but also begin to hear the inner voice of self-observation, self-guidance and self-punishment.
When I was young, maybe 6 years of age, there was a rule in my household where i was only allowed to eat a maximum if two pieces of candy everyday. I of course, would break this rule and sneak more than two. I do remember feeling a bit bad about this but one day, my mom caught me and I felt really guilty.
Recognizing one’s body parts in the mirror takes place approximately at 18 months of age. A sense of “me” emerges later in the second year and early in the third year.
In Erikson’s portrait if early childhood, the young child has clearly begun to develop self-understanding which is a representation of self, the substance and content of self-conceptions.
Children distinguish themselves from each other through many physical and material attributes.
Preschool children often describe themselves in terms of activities such as play. ln early childhood children often describe themselves in terms of body image, material possessions, and physical activities
Self Conscious Emotions
Even Young Infants experience emotions such as joy and fear. but to experience self conscious emotions a child must be able to refer to themselves as distinct from others
Emotion Language and Understanding of Emotion
Preschoolers become more and more adept at talking their own and others emotions. Between the ages 2 and 3 children increase the amount of terms they can use to describe emotions
A researcher from Carlton University Robert Coplan has studied childrens emotions. He identified two conditions among preschoolers who tend to withdraw from social interactions.
refers to a shyness with high anxiety. the other is
Emotion Coaching and Emotion-Dismissing Parents
A study found that parents play a crucial role in a child's emotional development. Depending on how they speak about emotions to their child. Emotion Coaching parents monitor their child's emotions and uses the child's negative emotions as lessons. Emotion-Dismissing Parents view their role as to deny or ignore the child's negative emotions.
Regulation of Emotion and Peer Relations
Emotions play a critical role in determining whether a child's peer relationships are successful. moody and emotionally negative children tend to be rejected more often by their peers. Children with more positive attitudes tend to make more relationships with their peers.
The Self (Parvir)
According to Erikson:
The young child has begun to develop self-understanding, which is the representation of self, the substance and content of self-conceptions.
Early self-understanding involves self recognition. Recall that recognizing one's body parts in a mirror takes place by approximately 18 months of age.
In early childhood, young children think that the self can be described by material characteristics, such as size, shape and colour. They distinguish themselves others through many physical and material attributes.
In sum, in early childhood, children often describe themselves in terms of body image, material possessions, and physical activities.
As a child, I often times saw differences between myself and other students. An example of this is when others were taller or shorter than me which made me realize that we were different. Also when other children had a different hair colour, it would make me realize that we are different.
What is it
-Involves the development of thoughts, behaviours, and feelings regarding standards of right and wrong
-Has an intrapersonal dimension(a person's basic values and sense of self)
-Also interpersonal dimension(what people should do in interactions with other people)
-As children develop, they become more sophisticated in thinking about social matters, also the possibilities and conditions of cooperation
-Preschool-age children are heteronomous moralists, they judge the rightness or goodness of behaviour by considering the consequences of the behaviour, not the intentions
Its interest is in how the child thinks about moral issues was stimulated by Jean Piaget(1932)
Piaget found that children think in two distinct, and different ways about morality:
- it occurs from approximately 4 to 7 years old. Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people
- it's displayed by older children(about 10 years of age and older). The child becomes aware that rules and laws are created by people and that in judging an action, one should consider the actor's intensions as well as the consequences
-Children 7 to 10 years of age are in a transition between the two stages, showing some features of both.
-A young child will believe that being disobedient will automatically connect to a punishment
-Heteronomous thinker believes in
,the concept that of a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately
According to Piaget
-In peer groups, all members have similar power and status, plans are negotiated and coordinated, and disagreements are reasoned and eventually settled
-Parent-child relations, in which parents have the power and the child does not, are less likely to advance moral reasoning because rules are often handed down by an repressive way
-Its very important looking at behaviour, when looking at moral development
-The process of reinforcement, punishment, and imitation can explain the development of moral behaviour
Punishment for bad behaviour is likely to be reduced in the same situation
When models behave morally and children are likely to adopt their actions
-A study of children in many situations at home, school, and at church, show our behaviour influences us(Hartshorne & May, 1928-1930)
-Children who are rewarded for their behaviour, they are likely to repeat that behaviour in the same situation
Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic theory
-Superego: which is the moral branch of personality- it develops as the child resolves Oedipus conflict and identifies with same sex parents in early-childhood years
-The Oedipus conflict is the fear of losing their parents' love and of being punished for their unacceptable sexual wishes
-Inwardly directed hostility is now felt-punitively as guilt, its experienced unconsciously
-Other emotions can also be characterized as the child's moral development
-Infants have the capacity for some empathic responses, but empathy often requires the ability to discern another's inner psychological states
When I was younger, I would take the Play-Doh and bring it home. But, one day we were making snowmen and my friends I was sitting with, were starting to steal it and put it in the bags. However, I didn't do it, because I though it was wrong and the teacher saw them doing it. We were punished for taking it.
Gender refers to the social and psychological dimensions of being male or female
sense of being male or female(acquired by age 3)
: set of expectations that prescribe how females and males think, act and feel
Chromosomes and hormones
The arrangement of the chromosomes determines the gender of the baby. XY is for males and XX is for female. Differentiation between male and female starts when genes on Y chromosome in male embryo trigger development of testes than ovaries because of secretion of androgen.
Hormones play a critical role in the development of sex differences. The 2 main classes of sex hormones are estrogen(female physical sex characteristics) and androgen such as testosterone(male physical sex characteristics)
Evolutionary Psychology view
Human evolution has produced psychological differences between male and female primarily because of their differing roles in reproduction
Patterns of behavior in males and females has evolved through natural selection. For instance , natural selection favors males who adopt short-term mating strategies which is where they have evolved their violent, competitive and risk-taking characters. Females who devote effort to parenting and finding good partners .
*Social Theories of gender
Social role theory:
gender differences result fro the contrasting roles of men and women for ex.in most cultures men have more power than females
Psychoanalytic theory of gender:
at the age of 5 or 6, the child renounces this sexual attraction to the opposite sex-parent because of anxious feelings. Then the child identifies with the same-sex parent, unconsciously adopting the same sex parents characteristics
Social Cognitive theory of gender:
emphasizes that children's gender development occurs through the observation and imitation of others and through being rewarded and punished for their behavior
Peers influence gender appropriate behavior through reward and punishment and reject those who act like the other gender. Gender also influences the size of friend groups, interactions within group, and composition of group
Parents through the way they act and behave influence their children's gender development for ex. the types of games or activities they play with the opposite gender
Cognitive developmental theory of gender:
Children's gender typing occurs after they have developed a concept of gender. Once they consistently conceive of themselves as male or female, they organize the world on the basis of gender. Largely based on observations of same-sex models
This gender-typed behavior occurs when children develop gender constancy which is understanding that sex remains the same even though the appearance and activities might be different(occurs around 5-7 years old or younger)
Gender schema theory
: Theory that an individual's attention and behavior are guided by an internal motivation to conform to gender-based socio-cultural standards and stereotypes
Confines the kids to act and behave a certain way and shape how they perceive the world. Children are motivated to act in ways that conform to these gender schemes.
When I was in elementary school, I remember not talking to anyone because we had just moved. But when I brought some toys to school one day to play with, I was ambushed by girls who wanted to be my friend. This is an example of peer influences.
Parenting or child rearing is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood.
Authoritative parenting encourages children to be independent but still places limits and controls on their actions, for example "you should not have done that, let's talk about how you can handle the situation next time"
For example, in my personal life, as a child once I remember that I had made a mistake and stayed up at night too long. I was then scolded and taught by my parents. They told me to not repeat staying up late again because it's unhealthy. I was being independent, however limits and controls were still placed on my actions. This relates to Authoritative Parenting.
Neglectful parenting is a style in which the parent is very uninvolved in the child's life.
Authoritarian parenting - restrictive, punitive style in which parents exhort the child to follow their directions and to respect work and effort. For example: "You do it my way, or else"
Indulgent parenting is a style of parenting in which parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them.
Co-parenting refers to the support that parents provide each other in jointly raising a child.
Time-out is an effective form of punishment on children. Spanking, and other abusive methods are not.
Parenting can be influenced by culture, ethnicity, and socio-economic status.