SLMC - Memory (Section 5: Systems For Creating & Maintaining Long Term…
SLMC - Memory
Section 5: Systems For Creating & Maintaining Long Term Memories
Lecture 29: Using Spaced Repetition to Help Us Maintain Memories
Anki - Spaced Repetition software, customizable cards that can include audio, pictures, rich text, and more
Even with a fantastic memory, review will be necessary to keep the information relevant (at least, according to your hippocampus).
If you're not going to use a formal system, you must be disciplined enough to review information on your own.
MasterClass Spotlight: Hermann Ebbinghaus & the Humble Origins of Memory Research
"Forgetting Curve" - rate at which we forget information if not reviewed
Primacy/Recency Effect - we can more easily remember the first and last items in a list
We can remember things that make little sense (nonsense syllables, etc) if we associate them with real, logical things
Created a formal, reproducible system that allowed you to analyze and quantify what you can remember.
Lesson: use yourself as a guinea pig, set up experiments and see how you do, optimize, test, etc.
Lecture 30: Note taking and highlighting
Highlighting is just faster way to take notes and can be treated as such.
Do not over-do highlights, if you highlight too much you might as well just re-read the whole thing and you save no time during review
Reasons for Note Taking
For reviewing the content
To guide and/or speed up review
Describe or draw marker
As a means of focusing attention
Activate more areas of the brain (motor function, etc.)
Investment increases, so likelihood of remembering increases (boost relevance)
Easy to paraphrase
Can add pictures, diagrams, audio, etc.
Tag, search, share
Export from e-readers to note apps
As action items
exercises to try
things to research
products to sample
As a strategy
track goals, progress, etc.
How Jonathan does it
When material is audio
computerized if possible
photos/scans of handwriting to computerized note apps
balance is key
Solutions, Closing Points, Quotes, Summaries
Highly Technical info
not for review (maybe), but for ease of locating later
Info relevant to others
One-page summary document
At least once a year, review
Simple, precise, easy and efficient to use
Lecture 31: Mind Mapping
Tony Buzan - inventor (?)
I believe his status as inventor is controversial, see Moonwalking with Einstein (Josh Foer)
Allows visualization of connections between information
Very fast and easy to review
Can be imaginary
Play with them to find your own style
Components of a MM
Anchor: root of MM, the marker that leads to the others
Retrieval markers - connect to anchor, large overview, section overview, etc.
Main Branches - main ideas of sections
Smaller branches/leaves - details
Strings - connect branches/leaves together
When to use them
Structure of a MM
Using the face of a clock, place main branches on odd hours.
Even hours are saved for future use (analysis, more details, etc)
Specific orders make recall easier
Use in conjunction with other forms of memorization
FreeMind Mind-Mapping Software
○ MindMeister (Cross-Platform)
○ MindNode for iPhone and iPad
○ Draw.io (free & powerful)
○ SimpleMind for Android
○ Mind Mapping for Beginners | Udemy
○ Learn the Skill of Effective Mind Mapping | Udemy
Lecture 32: Memory Palaces
Buildings or structures (real or imagined) that are used to place markers in specific areas within. These are called "loci", and become anchor points.
Once created/populated, you "walk" through these places to view your memories/markers.
Why they work
Our brains are very good at remember where things are and visualizing them.
Where was that water hole?
Where did I bury my food supply?
What did my room look like when I was 5?
Where were you when you heard about 9/11
Extremely effective at helping us index events
Can remember events, speeches, etc. in a specific order
In use since ~50BC (or earlier)
Simonides (Ancient Greece) was at an event. He stepped outside, then the building collapsed, He was able to remember who attended by where they were sitting at dinner, based on location.
How to take advantage
Create empty palaces based on places you remember, have been, or can imagine.
Often, memory palaces will be dedicated to specific topics
Place markers in strategic places within the palace
When NOT to use them
While reading (can be used afterward, but too difficult to use "on the fly")
Read first, create and link markers, THEN populate a MP
Ted Talk by Josh Foer (Syllabus)
Moonwalking with Einstein - Josh Foer (Book)
Other supplementary materials in the syllabus (link here?)
Can be used often
Jonathan gives the example of using them during meditation for random things that pop into his head, which helps with releasing the thoughts
Lecture 32b: Why Does the Memory Palace Technique Work So Well?
Paleolithic ancestors relied on remembering locations
Where is the tribe?
Where was the watering hole?
What is going on around me? What is different?
When we enter a new area, with novel stimuli, the locus coeruleus dumps dopamine into the CA3 region of the hippocampus, which causes a new memory to form.
CA3 region was considered to be a source of neruo-epinephrine
This particular mechanism was NOT linked to formation of other types of memories (trauma, for example)
We are so good at remembering locations due to literal neurological changes to our brain when encountering new places.
Episodic Memory Formation - connection of stimulus to specific place/time.
Retrosplenial Cortex - links memories to specific locations
"Where were you when you heard about 9/11/JFK"
Our actual neurochemistry is hard-wired for this type of memory
Lecture 33: Number Memorization Systems
Convert numbers to sounds, then sounds to images
Simply, convert numbers to visual symbols
0 is a bagel
1 is a pen
2 is a broken heart
3 is a butt from top-down
Digits correspond to particular sounds.
Major method chart, memorization tips, and word generator.
Spelling and repeat letters do not count. Vowels, "w" and "h" can be added as needed
Lecture 34: The PAO (Person, Action, Object) System
Large up-front investment, but subsequent memorization of large numbers is much easier.
All numbers 00-99 receive an associated person, action and object
Numbers can then be chunked by using the first pair's person, the second pair's action, and the third pair's object
Can combine this with other methods, such as the major method
00 (SS, SZ, ZS, ZZ) becomes Ozzy Assess(ing) an Oasis
Section 5 Quiz
Section 5 Review Worksheet
Section 2: Understanding Your Memory (So You Can Improve It)
Misconceptions Pre-Quiz I
Lecture 7: Why We Need to Improve our Memory First
Speed reading with no comprehension is useless
Funnel metaphor - if incoming information is like a fire hose, our "funnel" (working memory/processing ability) needs to be enough to work with that flow
Words, Ideas, Images, etc. don't all use the same path to long-term memory
Short Term Memory - 15-20 Seconds
Most of us have never been "taught" to remember, merely using rote memorization and have very few systems/techniques to memorize large amounts of complex information
Lecture 8: How We Store Information: A Very Brief Explanation
"Mind" is ~100 billion neurons, connected by synapses. When two neurons fire simultaneously, a memory is formed
When this happens often, the connections are strengthened and made more efficient and, thus, more likely to be remembered (and not quickly forgotten)
Hippocampus - determines what is worthy of long-term memory storage
more connections = more likely to be deemed "relevant"
Adults can learn just as well as children, with some specific requirements
Self-Concept - need to have control and take an active role
Role of Experience - Adults have more experience to draw upon
Readiness to Learn: adults are most ready to learn what is most relevant/pertinent to their daily lives
Orientation to Learning: respond best to learning what will be immediately applicable to themselves and a problem that they are having. More problem-centered than subject-centered
Motivation to Learn: must know WHY the information needs to be known
The Adult Learner - Malcolm Knowles (Amazon link)
Lecture 8b: Working Memory and Dual Coding Theory
Common Coding Theory
Several processing loops share the same working memory and pass info back and forth
Visual sensory info is processed in right brain
Audio info is processed in left brain
Dual-coding theory suggests that encoding memories in both visual AND verbal forms will increase retention
Start to think "like a slideshow"
We will learn
What kind of title or central concept is most descriptive
How to link slides
Whether to organize linearly or in a diagram
Images most suitable for each slide
What links can be most reasonably used
How to make generation of slides automatic and easy
Aim to improve working memory in three ways:
Lecture 9: Importance of Combining Games with Real World Application
Don't get too caught up in games! Real world application is far more important!
Refer to Personal Goals and Progress worksheet to "keep practice relevant"
Actively practice outside of the games
Worksheet - Apply Your Skills in the Real World
Lecture 10: Chunking: Navigating the Brain's Natural Limitations
Working Memory: 7+/-2 (really, closer to 4 +/-1)
Test - see how large of chunks you can remember
If we can can make "chunks of chunks", we can dramatically improve our capacity (4 chunks with 4 data points each improves working memory to 16 data points vs. 5)
Lecture 11: Chunking Demonstration
Chunking isn't a "technique" as much as a "psychological phenomenon"
Section 2 Review Worksheet
Lecture 12a: Memory Pygmalion and Golem Effects
Increased confidence in memory alone will lead to improved memory.
Increased expectations of someone else will also boost THEIR performance
Belief that one is poor at a skill will result in poor performance
Decreased expectations of someone else will decrease their performance
Lecture 13: Dual-Coding and "Brute Force" Learning
interacting with data using multiple senses increases retention
Lifted from "brute force hacking"
Attacking data from as many angles and perspectives as possible increases retention
Section 4: Mental Markers: Visual Memory Meets Learning
Lecture 19: How Do We Apply Visual Memory to Reading
Large Area of Confusion
Do not try to read and encode at the same time!
This will be expanded upon during the Speed Reading sections
Batch tasks - read, then encode, then read again - take pauses at intervals while reading
3 Processes of Memory
Not all markers have to be visual
Lecture 21: Creating Effective Markers for Better Memory
Some of these markers are from the demonstration in Lecture 20
Represent a very specific concept or idea
For example, one paragraph would generally get a few markers and perhaps one summarizing marker.
Don't picture a generic, vague image but a specific and detailed marker
Does not necessarily require a large amount of time for each marker, speed will come with practice
Can be easily connected to other markers
Prioritize details over concepts
We can build concepts from the memory of the details through a sort of reverse-engineering
Prioritize solutions over problems
Connect to existing knowledge whenever possible
10-15 markers per page, but we really only need to keep the key, most relevant markers
Bottom-up vs. top-down
Remember: the best markers are the markers you will actually USE and that WORK FOR YOU
Lecture 22: Logical and Creative Markers
What is your opinion on this?
If you can generate an opinion, then you have a decent grasp of the data/material
Does this marker create further links?
Markers created as logical representations of abstractions or concepts
Lecture 23: Trying Out your New Skills
Try to apply these techniques to real life
Names at a party
Markers during conversations to remember details
Markers to come back to a task or conversation after an interruption
Lecture 24a: Linking and Chunking Markers for Better Retention
Creating relationships makes them more relevant (and therefore more likely to be encoded/stored)
Grocery store example - chunk into
What meal they will be used for
Visualize first and last items on a list more thoroughly
Can recreate story from both beginning and end
This is a tough lecture to note this way, with many examples given.
Lecture 24b: Compound Markers and the "Slideshow" Metaphor (Courtesy of Dr. Lev)
Typical slideshow has slides with titles, audio/textual represntations of data, etc.
To verify that we have what we need, we re-play the slides to check for details
Bullets in a slide are "details" while the slide is a "compound marker"
Animated markers can help to create compound markers and/or link between markers
Link slides together
Test: ignore one, if the prrevious and subsequent markers remind you of the missed marker, you're good.
Lecture 26b: The #1 Thing that Makes Students Successful
Students adapt the methods to their own needs
These are methods and tools
They apply the skills to their own actual lives.
Creating and Linking Markers Worksheet
Section 4 Review Worksheet
Section 3: The Incredible Power of Visual Memory
Misconceptions Pre-Quiz II
Lecture 15: Why Images are the Most Powerful Way to Remember and Learn
Brains evolved to remember sensory information long before the written word existed and/or was attainable.
What was that poisonous berry?
Where was the watering hole?
We can comprehend an image much faster than the equivalent words. "A picture is worth 1000 words."
We can convert information to visual images, or "Markers"
The most powerful images are
Lecture 16: When and Why Creativity Training May Be Necessary
It takes creativity to rapidly create mental representations of information, especially abstract concepts
Dr.Lev has written books on creativity - blog post in Syllabus
Creativity Exercise - Multiple Uses Test (Worksheet)
Grab the nearest, random object and think of as many uses as you can think of for the object
Aim for 20-30
Often, children can think of 40+ uses in many, many chunks
Also trains visualisation skills
Lecture 18: What Kind of Images Come Most Naturally to You
Think of some simple object (coffee cup used in lecture)
Was it cartoonish?
Was it a coffee cup you remember from your own life?
Was it made-up?
Was it a sketch?
Keep images as detailed and specific as possible
Over time, a student will often settle on the same or similar images for the same concept or information. This builds a "library" of quick and easy markers.
Section 3 Review
Section 1: Introduction & Setting Yourself Up for Success
Daily Training Log
Personal Goals and Progress Worksheet
Reading Test 1
Lecture 3: Progressive Overload and What to Do If You Get Frustrated
"Like learning to walk on your hands"
work near your limits without going over
Adjust difficulty upwards as mastery increases
Expect a little frustration and struggle - if learning comes easily, it doesn't stick