Renewable Energy-7.3 + Renewable Energy Alternatives-7.4 (Accelerating…
Renewable Energy-7.3 + Renewable Energy Alternatives-7.4
Accelerating Renewable Energy Economy
Increase government efficiency CAFE standards
Mandate that certain percentage of the energy used by the companies should be renewable
Feed-in tariff system
Eliminate subsidies for fossil fuel industries
Use full-cost pricing
Tax carbon emissions
Subsidize renewable energy
is the simplest and most abundant chemical element in the universe. Perhaps it can be the fuel of the future.
Need H2 storage and distribution system.
High costs create need for subsidies.
CO2 emissions if produced from carbon-containing compounds.
Negative net energy.
High efficiency in fuel cells.
Can be produced from plentiful water at some sites
Good substitute for oil.
No CO2 emissions
any technology that uses the kinetic energy of flowing and falling water to produce electricity.
Tidal Energy and Wave Energy can
Disadvantages of Dam
Disrupts downstream aquatic ecosystems
Large land disturbance and displacement of people.
High CH4 emissions from rapid biomass decay in shallow tropical reservoirs.
Advantages of Dam
low CO2 emissions
large untapped potential
High net energy
Costly to extract.
Can produce more energy.
Can grow year round.
Organic material decomposed by bacteria.
Low net energy
Impurities can damage
Less CO2 than fossil fuels
Reduce livestock and human waste
Reuse food waste
Less waste to landfills
is organic matter found in plants or plant-related material.
Can be used to make
. It can also be converted into liquid
for use in motor vehicles.
Disadvantages of Solid Biomass
Increases CO2 emissions if harvested and burned unsustainably.
Can open ecosystems to invasive species.
Clear-Cutting can cause erosion, waste pollution, and loss of wildlife habitat.
Contributes to deforestation.
Advantages of Solid Biomass
Plantations can help restore degraded areas.
No net CO2 increase if harvested, burned, and replanted sustainably.
Widely available in some areas.
Medium net energy.
Disadvantages of Biofuels
Fuel crops can be invasive species.
20% more greenhouses to the atmosphere.
Tropical rainforest, grasslands, and wetlands are being destroyed to grow these crops that produce biofuels. Reduces biodiversity and increases food prices.
Requires huge amount of water and large volumes of waste water.
Advantages of Biofuels
Medium net energy for biodiesel from palm oils and medium net energy for ethanol from sugarcanes.
Easy to store and transport.
No net increase in CO2 emissions
Biofuel crops can be grown much all over the world.
from vegetable oil.
from plants and plant wastes.
is heat stored in the soil, underground rocks, and fluids in the Earth's mantle.
Can be non-renewable if heat is extracted faster than can be restored.
Not many hydrothermal sites with concentrations of heat high enough to make it affordable.
Drilling geothermal wells is expensive and risky.
Low CO2 emissions.
Medium net energy.
Is the most energy-efficient, reliable, environmentally clean, and cost-effective way to heat or cool a place.
Moving air causes the turbines to move producing electricity.
Visual pollution, low level noise, and can kill birds if not placed properly.
Needs backup or storage system when wind dies.
Collisions with turbines kill 234,000 birds and 600,000 bats a year.
New turbines will reduce the deaths.
Uv coating and ultrasonic devices to deter birds and bats/
Positioned away from migration routes
Slower blade rotation
Wind turbines cause 0.003 of bird and bat death compared to humans.
High net energy, widely available, low electricity cost, little air and other pollutions, easy to build and expand.
Smart grid connects various farms if one dies.
Increasing energy efficiency and reducing costs.
Occupy a small portion of land.
Wind is abundant, widely distributed, and inexhaustible.
Fast and relatively cheap to build and expand.
Wind power is mostly carbon-free and polltion-free.
Photovoltaic Cells: Convert solar to electric enegy.
Low Energy Efficiency
Cannot produce electricity at night
Solar cells emit no greenhouse gases or pollutants
Easy to use-low maintenance
Contain no toxic materials
Solar Thermal Systems:
Use different methods to collect and concentrate solar energy to boil water and produce steam for generating electricity.
Solar Heating Systems
Improving Energy Efficiency
Creates local jobs
Buys time to phase renewable energy
Very high net energy.
Reduces pollution and environmental degradation
Reduces oil imports and improves energy security.
Prolong fossil fuel supplies.
Saving Energy and Money
Insulate the building walls and roof
Seal gaps around the window frame
Biggest energy costs in home are:
Electronics and Appliances
International Center for Technology Assessment says that gasoline costs $12 but it is sold at $3.
Hidden Gasoline costs
Medical bills and health insurance caused by the pollution.
Defense spending to secure access to Middle East oil supplies
Costs of pollution control and cleanup
Government subsidies and tax breaks for oil.
Incentivize to use less gasoline
Improve massively transit system
Build bicycle-only routes and areas
Raise taxes on gasoline
Gasoline Electric Hybrid cars
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle
Corporate Average Fuel Economy
Seeks to improve the average fuel economy of new cars, light trucks, vans, and SUVs in the United States. However, from 1975 to 2013 the fuel economy increased from 11.9 to 24.9 miles per hour.
Fuel economy of a vehicle: is the measure of how many miles, you can travel on average for every gallon of gasoline that you use
Upgrade electrical grid to smart grid
Ways for industries to save money and fuel
Cogeneration - two useful forms of energy, heat and electricity.
More energy efficient-variable speed electric motors
Implementing energy-efficiency in offices
Recycling materials such as steel and other metals can save money and energy.
The ones that use the most energy are the ones that produce chemicals, petroleum, cement, steel, aluminum, and paper and wood products.
Ways to improve energy efficiency
Power plants and industry
Upgrade the electrical grid to an energy-efficient smart grid.
Variable-speed electric motors.
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, and Cogeneration.
Switch off unused energy-consumers, specially computers and servers.
Use energy-efficient appliances, devices, and lights.
Insulating buildings for more efficient heating and cooling.
Electric and hybrid vehicles.
CAFE vehicle fuel efficiency target.
Mass transit systems- discourage car use.
Reasons for Energy Waste
engine that propels most motor vehicles.
: Electronic servers processing and storing information.
Nuclear, coal, and natural gas power plants
Biggest sources of Renewable Energy
Means reducing or eliminating the unnecessary wasting of energy.
Concerns avoidable loss that happens as a result of carelessness or ignorance.
Is a measure of how much useful work we can get from each unit of energy we use.
Concerns unavoidable loss that happens as a result of inefficient technology and system.
More energy goes into the form we need + There are ways to improve energy efficiency and waste less energy.
Fossil Fuels will fade because renewable energy:
Becoming cheaper and cheaper
Reduce dependence on foreign fuel.
Cause fewer environmental and health problems.
Benefits of transitioning to Renewable Energy
Save lives by sharply reducing air pollution.
Slow the increase in ocean acidity.
Help keep climate change from spiraling out of control and creating ecological and economic chaos.
Create jobs and business opportunities.
Improving energy efficiency and reducing energy waste.
Replying more on a mix of renewable energy.
Decreasing our dependence on nonrenewable fossil fuels.