Cultural variations in attachment (Evaluation (Similarities may not be…
Cultural variations in attachment
Cultural variations - the ways that different groups of people vary in terms of their social practices, have on development and behaviour.
Key study: Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988)
meta-analysis of 32 studies of attachment behaviour
2,000 in eight countires
Looking at inter-cultural differences and intra-cultural differences
Differences were small
Secure attachment was the main attachment
Insecure avoidant attachment was the next most common in every country expect Israel and Japan
Cultural similarities and differences
Tronick et al. (1992) studied an African tribe, the Efe, from Zaire who in a extended family groups. The infants were looked after and even breastfed by different women but usually they slept with their own mother at night. Despite such differences in childbearing practices the infants, at six months, still showed on primary attachment.
Grossman and Grossman (1991) found higher levels of insecure attachment among German infants than in other cultures.
Takashai (1990) used the Strange Situation to study 60 middle-class Japanese infants and their mothers and found similar rates of secure attachment to those found by Ainsworth et al. However, the Japanese infants showed no evidence of insecure-avoidance attachment and high rates of insecure-resistant attachment (32%)
Similarities may not be innately determined
Nation rather than culture
Indigenous theories of attachment