disorders of the eyes (cataracts) (pathophysiology (Oxidative stress is…
disorders of the eyes (cataracts)
Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance of antioxidants and pro-oxidants. Since toxic free radicals are the result of normal metabolism, their destruction is imperative. Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Opacity of the lens is a direct result of oxidative stress. Cataracts occur primarily due to age, but also are common in diabetes where superoxide in the mitochondria is elevated as a result of hyperglycemia.
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. Most cataracts are related to aging.
asessment and symptoms
Clouded, blurred or dim vision
Increasing difficulty with vision at night
Sensitivity to light and glare
Need for brighter light for reading and other activities
Seeing "halos" around lights
Frequent changes in eyeglass or contact lens prescription
Fading or yellowing of colors
Double vision in a single eye
Most cataracts develop when aging or injury changes the tissue that makes up your eye's lens.
Some inherited genetic disorders that cause other health problems can increase your risk of cataracts. Cataracts can also be caused by other eye conditions, past eye surgery or medical conditions such as diabetes. Long-term use of steroid medications, too, can cause cataracts to develop
Cataract surgery is performed on an outpatient basis with local anesthesia (the patient is awake but does not feel the procedure). Frequently, medication is given to help you feel relaxed, as well. You will not see the actions of the surgeon nor anything sharp near your eye. During the surgery, the clouded lens of the eye is broken up with high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) or laser, and then suctioned from the eye by a process called phacoemulsification. The clouded lens is then replaced with a clear, plastic intraocular lens implant in order to restore vision. The prescription of the artificial lens is selected to fit your eye and to help restore normal vision.
When patients have cataracts in both eyes, the surgeries are usually done separately.
A laser, known as the femtosecond laser, can be used to assist in the cataract surgery. This may allow for treatment of astigmatism or other conditions.
Excessive exposure to sunlight
High blood pressure
Previous eye injury or inflammation
Previous eye surgery
Prolonged use of corticosteroid medications
Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol
The current trend is to perform the surgery as a same-day procedure. Nursing care revolves around patient education before and after surgery and providing safety.
Disturbed Sensory Perception: Change in the amount or patterning of incoming stimuli accompanied by a diminished, exaggerated, distorted, or impaired response to such stimuli.
Assists patient to see larger print and promotes a sense of independence.
Glasses or contact, bifocal, or magnifying lenses may improve vision. Mydriatics can be used short term, but glare is increased.