The 14 Categories of Disabilities (Deaf-Blindness (Low Incidence)…
The 14 Categories of Disabilities
Strategies for teaching Autistic children
Give positive behavior support
Meditation or yoga
Create classroom routines
Treat them as normal as much as possible
Give fewer choices
Educational challenges for Autistic children
Issues seeking and also avoiding
Mood instability and meltdowns
Lack of common people skills
Accommodation for Autistic children
Technology tools to assist Autistic children
Talk light (decrease surrounding sounds)
augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) device
Strategies for developing communication
Be aware of the importance of play as a means of developing social communication
Establish a relationship with the pupil based on consistency and predictability, developing the pupil’s trust and confidence
Use visual material and/or signing to support and facilitate the pupil’s communicative initiations and responses
Characteristics of Deaf-blind
Difficulty bonding with caregivers
Inconsistent responses to sounds or visual images
Trouble learning object permanence
Typically perceive time very differently
An overactive startle response
Definition of Death Blind- is the condition of little or no useful sight and little or no useful hearing.
Education Challenges of Deaf-blind
Depending on others to feel safe and informed
Difficulty navigating their surroundings
Overcoming barriers that complicate their interactions with non DeafBlind people
Teaching Strategies for Deaf-blind
Establish predictable routines
Involve student for whole activity
Provide opportunity to make choices
Help student interact with others
Use appropriate cues
Hand under hand technique (explore together)
Accommodation for deaf-blind students
Technology tools for deaf-blind
Face to Face PC communicator
Refreshable Braille Display
Assistive technology equipment (hearing aids, assistive learning devices)
Provide extended time on assignments and assessments
Eliminate unnecessary background noise
Provide consistent access to instruction and environmental information
Provide access to and/or assist in the development and use of receptive and expressive communication skills
Facilitate the development and maintenance of trusting, interactive relationships that promote social and emotional well-being;
Provide support to help a student form relationships with others and increase social connections and participation in activities.
Teacher Tips and Tricks
Modify course handouts to include Braille
Use of bold line paper and raised line paper
Give student hints or clues for assignments or assessments
Print and copy assignments in large font
Print and copy assignments with clear, large photos
Deafness (Low Incidence)
Use assissitive learning devices
Minimize any background noise
Encourage students with hearing loss to seat themselves at the front of the class so vision is not obstructed
Repeat any questions asked by students in the lecture before giving response
Do not speak when facing blackboard
Provide written material to supplement all lectures
Allow students to record lectures
Provide alternatives to those assignments which are based on interviews or questionnaires, flexible deadlines
Provide extra time in examinations
Students may require a thesaurus or dictionary during exams, perhaps a computer for spelling
Definition - According to the IDEA Deafness is a hearing impairment so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplificaiton
Emotional Disturbance ![emotional]
(Low Incidence )
Don't take it personally
Build rapport and trust with student on good day
Have a plan when things go bad
Emotional disturbance" means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child's educational performance:
Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances
A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.
An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teacher
An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory or health factors
Hearing Impairment - "Low Incidence"
Hearing impairment is an impairment in hearing that may or may not be permanent and affects a child's educational performance.
difficulty participating in classroom discussions
difficulty with grammar, spelling, vocabulary
difficulty watching educational videos
difficulty presenting oral reports
difficulty taking notes while listening to lectures
face the student
avoid standing by a window because of sun glare
when you're about to start class, give a cue to the hearing impaired student like a tap on the shoulder or a wave
in the first class, have a written syllabus and review it, state if anyone needs course adaptations, then they need to tell you as soon as possible
speak clearly and naturally
extend time for students to take tests
establish way of getting visual messages to the student such as through WeChat
use visual media such as PPT, flashcards, slides, chalkboard, posters, etc.
repeat questions and comments from other students while addressing the student's name who made the comment
seat student in the front row where they can see the instructor
keep instructions brief and uncomplicated as much as possible, repeat if needed
use more than one way to demonstrate or explain information
clearly define course requirements such as exam dates, class outline, syllabus, and assignment due dates
if possible, use a circular seating arrangement so the hearing impaired student can see everybody
always talk in private to the student when finding out new strategies to assist them
be flexible and allow the student extra time when working independently with audio visual material
in small group discussions, allow for participation by students with hearing impairments
7. Intellectual Disability
Definition: "Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning (reasoning, learning, problem solving) and in adaptive behavior, which covers a range of everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18."
Limitations in intellectual functioning: memory recall, task & skill generalization, low motivation and learned helplessness
Limitations in adaptive behavior: conceptual skills, social skills and practical skills; such as choice making, problem solving and goal setting
Provide direct instruction in functional skill areas
independent living skills
self-cafe and hygeine
pre-linguistic milieu teaching: tying instruction to a student's individual interest and ability
Teach one concept or component at a time
Teach students one-on-one or in small groups
Provide opportunities to practice skills in different settings
Provide specific verbal praise to guide and reinforce correct responses
Use real materials and tools in natural environments
In inclusive classrooms, use the same materials as the other students whenever possible
Use learning software that can be tailored to the interest and ability of each student
Use software that combines audio and video based curriculum
Make sure the primary goal of instruction is fostering independence and self-reliance
Strategies and materials should always be aligned to each individual student's abilities and interests
hampered speech and communication skills
※some medical conditions such as seizures and “water on the brain” (hydrocephalus) can accompany multiple disabilities.
a need for assistance in performing everyday activities
challenges with mobility
Finding a setting suitable to the child’s intelligence level
A child’s ability to effectively communicate with teachers, support staff and peers
A student’s capability to function in the classroom
Assessing and compensating for visual or hearing impairments
Through the association of real objects with familiar events, a child can begin to develop a connection between objects, symbols, and experiences.
Language Development on the Path to Literacy
Repetition of highly interesting activities paired with consistent exposure to representations about some activities (expressed in objects, vernalizations, sign language, and braille)
Talking photo albums can be used as a conversation aid for individuals who have limited verbal communication skills.
Pointing to an object or a picture to make a choice
Tips for teaching
Believe in the student‘s ability to learn something new
Start by developing long-term goals as the students plenty of time to make progress
Update other teachers, therapists and family members on progress and co-treat regularly with other members of the team.
Work together with others on the same goals so that students get lots of practice on the same things.
Work directly and often with the student and their paraprofessionals.
Give plenty of wait time when looking for a student response
Work with the Speech & Language Therapist to determine what type of communicator the student is.
Use the student’s learning medium to drive decisions about what kind of abstract symbol system the teacher will use with the student.
Work with other team members (usually SpEd Teacher, OT, and S&L) to determine how the student will indicate their response.
The teacher should trust his/her gut in regards to mastery instead of making decisions by mixed mastery data
Difination:"Multiple disabilities" means concomitant impairments (such as mental retardation-blindness, mental retardation-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf blindness.
Orthopedic Impairment - Low Incidence
Types: Neuromotor Impairments / Degenerative Diseases / Musculoskeletal Disorders
Potential Teaching Challenges
Limited motor skills
Inability for some forms of communication or limited communication
General health issues
Lack of general experiences at their given age / stage
Combination of disabilities
Can lead to disabilities interacting and creating additional issues
Physically unable to participate in many tasks
Mental factors to consider
Social interaction issues
Difficulties with behavior and emotional problems
Issues with self esteem
Loss or lack of motivation
Teaching Strategies to Consider
Time allotted for tasks given specific motor limitations
If additional time will be needed, consider how and where the student will be able to complete tasks
Learning the extent of the students impairment(s)
Meet with parents / guardians and the students potential support team to understand student needs
Note and make plans to meet the needs
If the needs are substantial, seek additional resources
Prepare a plan that can be adapted and adjusted if needed
Students capabilities and strengths
Whenever the student can participate in an activity or excel in an activity make sure they have opportunities to do so
This could be very beneficial to them and reduce or prevent some of the negative mental factors
Document and take note of students strong points
Positioned in an accessible way
Screen reading technology
Speech recognition devices
Devices that can be used comfortably
Voice command software
Comfort of use for things in the classroom like chairs and desks
Prepare other students
Focus on acceptance, similarities, and giving students jobs they can do to help and be inclusive for each other
Other Health Impairment
Definition: "An umbrella term encompassing hundreds of types of impairments that may result in a chronic condition limiting the individual's ability to effectively access the educational environment. This category is determined by limitations in the three areas of strength, vitality, and alertness, and these students may be cognitively intact."
Sickle Cell Anemia low incidence
Definition:A genetic blood disease due to an abnormal form of hemoglobin.
Often feel pain
More susceptible to strokes
Body can not reproduce red blood cells fast enough. Red blood cells die after 10-20 days rather than after 120 days
The disease does not affect learning ability but the other effects of the disease might
Complications due to low anemia may cause learning challenges
Fatigue due to anemia
lack of concentration
Difficulty being organized
Extreme cold or hot temperatures can cause a crisis
Allow for frequent bathroom breaks
Watch for signs of a stroke
Consider an IEP plan
Open communication with parents via email, phone or in person
Educational challenges and assessment
Student may not be able to physically participate
Keep student involved: Teacher's assistant, umpire, score keeper
Allow for more time to finish assignments
Online books or 2nd set of books kept at home
Quality over quantity of assignments more important
Definition: Developmental disorder that is marked with constant symptoms of hyperactivity and inattention (distractability, forgetfullness, disorganization)
Difficulty following instructions
Trouble with organisation
Easily distracted or sidetracked
:assistive technology that is designed for students and other individuals that learn through listening
WizCom Tech pen:
allows its users to scan the word or line of text and then reads it out to them, helps in reading fluency and comprehension
mapping out each project cycle using Kanban style boards to showcase different stages of the projects, a built-in calendar to manage schedule and setting reminders
foot rests, cushions, resistant bands, to satisfy need to move
Color code material for each subject to ease organisation
Create Behaviour plan with reward system
Teacher Tips and Tricks
Patience, creativity, consistency
Arrange seating away from distraction
Quiet area in classroom
Utilize charts, pictures, color coding
Can have the type of seizure characterized by periods of fixed staring, which can cause them to miss what the teacher is saying
Students may face psychological and social aspects of the condition
Memory and concentration issues
Missed classes and assignments if a student is put in the hospital or recovering from a seizure
No special technologies, but educators should be cautious of the lighting and setup of the classroom, and should not use fast-moving or flickering images
Teachers tips and tricks
learn more about the systems of help that are available
Develop an IEP program as soon as possible
Build relationships with school counselors and nurses to support the student and keep up-to-date with their health
Make sure others are informed and aware of the child's condition
important to document and report episodes promptly to parents
Be flexible about absences and missed work
Provide extra time for assignments
Be aware of the lighting and setup of your classroom
In the classroom:
To address memory deficits:
Provide visual instructions and use verbal and recorded instructions
Divide tasks into smaller, simple steps
Link student with a peer buddy to assist when needed
Provide a calendar and checklist of assignments and due dates
Definition: epilepsy is a seizure disorder
Specific Learning Disability
signs and symptoms
Vision, Reading, and Spelling
Complains of dizziness, headaches or stomach aches while reading
Confused by letters, numbers, words, sequences, or verbal explanations.
Reading or writing shows repetitions, additions, transpositions, omissions, substitutions, and reversals in letters, numbers and/or words.
Complains of feeling or seeing non-existent movement while reading, writing, or copying
Seems to have difficulty with vision, yet eye exams don’t reveal a problem.
Extremely keen sighted and observant, or lacks depth perception and peripheral vision.
Reads and rereads with little comprehension.
Spells phonetically and inconsistently.
Hearing and Speech
Has extended hearing; easily distracted by sounds
Difficulty putting thoughts into words
hears things not said or apparent to others
speaks in halting phrases
leaves sentences incomplete
stutters under stress
mispronounces long words
Writing and Motor Skills
Trouble with writing or copying
pencil grip is unusual
handwriting varies or is illegible
Clumsy, uncoordinated, poor at ball or team sports
difficulties with fine and/or gross motor skills and tasks
prone to motion-sickness
Math and Time Management
Has difficulty telling time , managing time, learning sequenced information or tasks, or being on time.
Computing math shows dependence on finger counting and other tricks
knows answers, but can’t do it on paper.
Can count, but has difficulty counting objects and dealing with money
Can do arithmetic, but fails word problems; cannot grasp algebra or higher math
Memory and Cognition
Excellent long-term memory for experiences, locations, and faces
Poor memory for sequences, facts and information that has not been experienced
Thinks primarily with images and feeling, not sounds or words (little internal dialogue)
Behavior, Health, Development, and Personality
Extremely disorderly or compulsively orderly
Can be class clown, trouble-maker, or too quiet
Had unusually early or late developmental stages (talking, crawling, walking, tying shoes).
Prone to ear infections; sensitive to foods, additives, and chemical products
Can be an extra deep or light sleeper; bedwetting beyond appropriate age.
Unusually high or low tolerance for pain.
Strong sense of justice; emotionally sensitive; strives for perfection.
Mistakes and symptoms increase dramatically with confusion, time pressure, emotional stress, or poor health.
Dyslexia is a disorder present at birth and cannot be prevented or cured
13. Traumatic Brain Injury:
Definition: “an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.”
Large Print Calendars
Digital or talking Clock to keep time
Daily check list on back of door reminding thing you need before you leave the house (Keys, lock door, turn off oven)
Labels on drawers, reminding contents inside
...For Memory and organisation
Handheld Tablet to help allow an individual to easily input, save, and retrieve notes, telephone numbers, dates and daily reminders, and to-do lists
Pill Alert: alarm feature that can be set to ring at the time or times medication needs to be taken.
Smartphones or Specialized watches to generate technologies
...to access information
Visual Assistant: provides task-prompting support by providing digital pictures, along with custom recorded audio messages that provide step-by-step instructions.
Recording device: brain injury might make it difficult to take notes and keep up with teachers or presentations
Writing assistant: Help student who is stronger orally with vocabulary and spelling by using speaking instead of writing methods
tinted overlays for reading (this may help with visual processing)
...for positioning and mobility
specialised chairs, desks, tables
Difficulty taking tests and Exams
Problems following complex instructions
Difficulty learning new skills
More time to complete tests
Break down complex direction
Individual Day planner to help student stay organized
Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
Teacher Tips and tricks
Get to know students as an individual
Careful planning and school re-entry plan
Supervision when re-introduced into school
Provide repetition and consistency
avoid figurative language
Reinforce lengthening periods of attention to appropriate tasks
Be prepared for students' reduced stamina and increased fatigue
Have consistent routines.
Visual Impairment Including Blindness (Low Incidence)
Definition: Limitation of one or more functions of the eye
Most common impairments
Visual fields: Normal range of what one can see
Visual acuity: sharpness or clarity of vision
Why would a student be visually impaired?
Congenital: Born with due to a genetic condition
Maternal infection during pregnancy
Consequence of diseases such as diabetes or glaucoma
Complications of extreme prematurity
Trauma, poisoning, tumors
Aging: macular degeneration, cataracts, optic nerve atrophy
Table should be near outlet
Student should have a wide table to accommodate a Braille machine, computer and a note taker
Swivel chair so the student can move around easily at the table
Place student near the teacher to avoid isolation and to allow student to hear all instructions
Place student away from lighting or windows that can affect limited vision
Wide spaces between desks
Avoid changing the furniture and if you do , give the student time to adjust
Eliminate background noise
Eliminate classroom clutter/ class can work together as a team to be clutter free
Open and close doors fully
Place class materials in consistent places
Check in and Tune in to yourself as a person
Examine your own preconceived beliefs about what you imagine a vision impaired student can do or not do
Ask for help or tips from the vision resource teacher
How you treat the student will impact how other students treat the student.
Don't assume a vision impaired student is incapable
Meet with student to ask question and address issues
Have they made friendships?
How can the classroom or school change things to make it easier for them to navigate.
How is the technology they are using working?
What assistance can you offer them.
Meet with the vision resource teacher to ask questions and address issues
What can the student see ?
How should discipline be handled?
How can I include the student in group activities ?
How does the student feel about their vision loss?
Does an alternative assessment strategy need to be set up?
What are some daily strategies and tips?
Meet with parents to ask questions and address issues
How independent is the child
Does the child know how to use and maintain equipment
Reason for vision loss
What kinds of social and educational goals do they expect
Provide hands on material whenever possible
Talk and describe as much as possible when teaching.
Give individual explanations
Check in often with the student to make sure they are understanding material
Always address the student by their first name and let them know who is speaking to them
Encourage student to be independent
Treat student equally to other other students
Give copies of material /handouts in advance
Allow for lectures to be taped for repeated listening
Allow at least a month to order large type books,Braille books, or audio books
Provide a buddy or assistant to take notes
Allow for more time to complete assignments due to alternative media used
Reduce the number of assignments needed due to time constraints
Allow for extra time for examinations
Exam 's may need to be Braille, enlarged or on heavy lined paper
Make use of tactile materials
Establish a buddy system with another classmate
Offer 2 fingers or a wrist for a preschooler to hold
Allow older students to hold at the elbow
12. Speech and Language Impairment
"Speech and language impairment is defined as a communication disorder that adversely affects the child's ability to talk, understand, read, and write. This disability category can be divided into two groups: speech impairments and language impairments."
Speech impairments: articulation disorders, fluency disorders, and voice disorders
Language impairments: phonological disorders, morphological disorders, semantic disorders, syntactical deficits, and pragmatic difficulties
Problems in communication
Isolation from peers and classroom environment
Difficulty understanding language use in different social contexts
Restrictions of word meaning
Unable or unwilling to produce more elaborate sentences
Receptive language difficulties: problems with the way they hear and process language
Speech and language software
Augmentative or Alternative Communication (AAC):
Collaborate with a team for interventions and teaching strategies:
General education teachers
Incorporate strategies to help the student generalize strategies mastered in speech therapy
Encourage and accept all forms of communication
Use clear and direct languge
Face the class so learners can see your mouth and facial features
Use visual cues
Promote active listening and attentive communication
Give time for thinking and response
Clarify misunderstandings and encourage students to notify when they do not understand
Use sound discrimination exercises:
color-coding the different groups of phonemes
Developmental Delay (Low Incidence)
Signs and symptoms
At 2 does not know functions of common objects like hair brush; does not follow simple instructions; does not imitate actions or words.
Total Physical Response; teacher calls out action like run and student run
Use hand gestures and imperative language to give instructions. e.g. Open your books to page 21 and hand gesture for opening a book and page number
Digital organizers that allows students to organize new words and meaning in a way they understand
Social and emotional skills
At 1 shows no back and forth sharing of sounds, smiles or facial expressions; shows no back and forth gestures such as waving, reaching or pointing
Cue Cards (prompts to express emotion)
First then boards (e.g. first raise your hand, then answer the question)
Speech and language skills
At 2 cannot speak 15 words; does not use 2 word phrases without repetition, uses speech to communicate immediate needs
Using realia and chunking language e.g. green shoes, blueshoes
APPs like vocabulary builders. Select, listen, repeat and test again later
Asking learners to make choices, e.g. do you want a pencil or a pen? And encouraging a full response e.g. I want to use the pen.
Fine and gross motor skills
At 2 (Gross) cannot walk; cannot push wheeled toys; does not develop heel to toe walking pattern; (Fine) have difficulty grasping objects; poor hand and eye coordination
Sticker pad e.g. child has to use lots of sticker to outline an animal. This strengthens their thumb and forefinger muscles.
Pencil grips to help learners be able to hold their pencils properly
Age appropriate tables so learners can work comfortably