Exploration and Colonization (PEGS: Reasons for Colonization (Political…
Exploration and Colonization
PEGS: Reasons for Colonization
powerful nation states and monarchs
growth of trade
advances in technology
China: gunpowder and magnetic compass
Middle East: better sails and gunpowder
Wanted to increase profit using natural resources
the natural divots in the land make natural harbors
most of the land of the North and South America
Located in a coastline
European missionaries wanted to spread Christianity; believed they had the superior religion
many Native Americans didn't want to succumb to Christianity
God (Christianity), Gold (in trade), Glory (power)
New England Colonies
Settled by: Pilgrims (separatists)
Mayflower: About 100 passengers traveled to North America in the Mayflower near the Hudson River. They set anchor in Cape Cod.
Mayflower Compact: The Mayflower Compact established the foundation for the colony's government. It was the first self government plan in the colonies and most of the colony's decisions would be made by the colony's men.
Half of the settlers died during the first winter. The Squanto had helped them survive. The Plymouth Colony kept growing.
Settled by: Roger Williams and his supporters
Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for s[peaking out against government punishing religious dissention and against confiscating Native American land.
Settled by: Thomas Hooker
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut was the first written constitution in America. Citizenship was based on land ownership.
Settled by: Pilgrims and Puritans seeking religious freedom
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Settled by: Puritans
They were led by Governor John Winthrop who believed "We shall be as a city upon a Hill. The eyes of the people are on us."
It became the largest and most influential New England Colony. Later on, Massachusetts became a royal colony.
Settled by: David Thomson
After being exiled from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for being a dissenter, John Wheelright and 175 followers established the New Hampshire township of Exeter that had no religious ties.
Settled by: The Dutch
Henry Hudson: Hudson explored the area in 1611 for the Dutch East India Company, giving the Netherlands its claim to the the territory.
To promote settlement, Dutch landholders were given tracks of land that they could rent out to tenant farmers.
The Dutch and British fought 3 naval wars. The territory was renamed for the Duke of York, the brother of King Charles II received a charter for the territory.
Settled by: New Sweden Company
In 1664. the British Duke of York and the colony of New York gained control over Delaware. In 1681, William Penn was granted control over Delaware as part of Pennsylvania. In 1701, Delaware separated from Pennsylvania to form its own colony.
Settled by: The Dutch
In 1664, the Duke of York gave the land between the Hudson and Delaware Rivers to two friends, Sir George Carter and Lord John Berkeley, and the area was re-named New Jersey.
Settled by: William Penn
In 1681, King Charles II granted William Penn a charter for the colony for the colony of Pennsylvania.
Quakers: Pennsylvania became a haven for Quakers. Quakers were often ridiculed for their simplicity of speech and clothing. They were also persecuted for rejecting oaths, rituals, and formal ministers of the 17th century church, and for their anti-war beliefs.
Settled by: British
When: 1587 - Roanoke | 1607 - Jamestown
Roanoke: In 1587, 100 men, women, and children settled on Roanoke Island under the leadership of John White. It took White nearly 3 to return to Roanoke. When he arrived, the settlement was deserted.
Settled by: Virginia Company of London
Only 38 of the 150 settlers survived the first winter.
House of Burgesses: In 1619, the first legislature made up of elected representatives in North America was established at Jamestown.
Growing tobacco was very labor intensive, but also hugely profitable. The Virginia Company offered free land to people who settled in Jamestown. Indentured were first used to work the fields and cure the tobacco, but in 1619, the first African slaves were brought to Jamestown.
Settled by: General James Oglethorpe
Georgia was established as a buffer between South Carolina and Spanish Florida. It was established as a place for English debtors to go and serve their sentences.
North + South Carolina
Settled by: Supporters of King Charles II
King Charles I granted 8 supporters land in the Carolinas.
Cash crops are grown for the purpose of selling rather than being grown for just the farmer to use.
Settled by: Lord Baltimore
Lord Baltimore was a Catholic who convinced King Charles I to grant him 100 million acres for persecuted Catholics to settle. Later on, Maryland became filled with more Protestants than Catholics.
Toleration Act of 1649: This law granted religious freedom to all Christians living in Maryland.
King Philip's War
When: 1675 - 1676
Native Americans upset over rapid settlement growth and their treatment vs. English settlers
Metacom: He created an alliance with other Native Americans and in 1675, he launched a united assault on colonial towns.
Colonists: 17 towns destroyed, 52 towns damaged, and 2000 settlers were killed
Native Americans: entire Americans were sold into slavery, many were forced into local servitude, political independence ended.
Governor Andros of New York, a colonial militia, and allied Metacom's warriors attacked Metacom's camp, killing 350 of his men and capturing his wife and son. The war ended shortly after Metacom was captured and killed.
Witches in Salem
When: Spring - Fall 1692
150 people were imprisoned for witchcraft, 7 died in prison, 19 men and women were found guilty and hung, and 1 person was crushed to death for refusing to testify
Nathaniel Bacon raised an unauthorized militia of indentured servants, slaves, and poor farmers to retaliate against a series of Native Americans attacks on the Virginia frontier.
In response, Virginia Governor William Berkeley gathered an army to fight against Bacon and his men. Macon and his men attacked and destroyed Jamestown. The rebellion ended soon after Bacon's death from dysentery. His co-conspirators were hung.
Significance: First colonial rebellion against royal control, white farmers and landholders were given more right, but the planter class remained in power. Laws make Africans hereditary slaves were passed.