Cigarette use of male and females of different ethnic groups in South…
Cigarette use of male and females of different ethnic groups in South Africa that are in Grade 8-10
STEP 1 : STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
According to (Graziano and raulin ,1997) the research process begins with identifying an area of interest . Is there a gap in the current research i want to address ? is there a problem that needs to be solved in the workplace or society ?
To analyse and provide the data of cigarette use by male and female South African students of different ethnicity backgrounds in grade 8-10 we observe the initiation of cigarette use as well as minors access to the products as well as their influence from adults or older students.
A literature review was conducted on children and tobacco in South Africa it is difficult to conduct research on adolescents , it was mainly due to lack of nationality representatives samples , different sample sizes and methodologies being employed.
Is my research capable of being answered by empirical study ? Would funding sources be in terested ? Is my research neutral ? Has my research question not been satisfactorily answered before ?
Research design : A nationally representative survey was conducted during using self administered questionnaires translated into seven languages. Qualitative methodology is applied in the focus when the research takes on aspects such as ethnicity , sex of participants in the research Quantitative methodlogy is shown according the the statistics found based on schools who paricpated in the study , 123/160 schools took part in the research and 6045/7074 completed the suvey completed the survey based on results 23% of the sample reported to be current users while 28% were male and 17.5% were females
The research question has not been successfully answered before due to that reddy associattes in their studies in 1995 and 1996 they showed that 34% of aduLT south Africans smoked atleast one cigarette a day
STEP 2 : DEVELOPMENT OF THE RESEARCH QUESTION.
STEP 3: RELEVANT REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.
The keywords in this study will be highlighted and expanded on as much as possible such as ;ethnicty , sex , :and age of the intiation of smoking and cigarrette use and the key elements that the research boareded around to complete the research survey to get the most accurate results.
Furthermore there is information on the research topic ,through the fact that the study was notintially conducted in South Africa. Studies showed in developed countries showed that majoirty of smokers intiated the use of tobacco before the age of 18.although international figures show a decrease in the intiation age ,tobacco is still the leading causeof of death in the world as 250 million children die every year.
How will i judge the quality of the available information? What kind of information is availbe about my topic(infromation ,academic sources , in the media or on the internet, or not so much information at all) ?
STEP4 : CHOICE OF THEORETICAL APPROACH
The research falls under transformative/emancipatory paradigm.This is evidenced by the need to seek redress through the initiation to observe tobacco control programmes to the needs of the students ans by studing the racial and sex differences as factors of prime consideration.
Which approaches have been used previously to study my topic and how will my choice of theory contribute to this? How will my choice of theoretical approach contribute to my methodlogy ?
STEP 5; CHOICE OF METHODOLOGY AND METHOD SELECTING A SAMPLE
The methodology used was both qualitative and quantitative(mixed methodlogy). The level of meausremnt is as follows: 1. nominal measurement a) race-participants were classified according to their historical racial catergories.The majority of studnets that took part were blacks/africans (53.8%) , followed by whites (14.0%) then coloreds(10.9%) followed by indians (3.4%).. 2. The odinal measurement was indicated by grade 8-10 montoring.
A two cluster designed based sample was used to conduct the research tihs was done to obtain a nationally representative sample of studnetsin grade 8-10 (age 11-17).first stage took place in schools with greater portion sizes and bigger populations.. The seco nd sampling stage took place in small portions and smaller polpulations to get accurate results.
Does my research question lend itself to a quantitative,qualitative or mixed methodology ? ? Would a probability or non-probability sampling method be most suitable for selecting my sample ?
METHOD OF SAMPLING AND QUESTIONNAIRE DEVELOPMENT
The type of survey conducted was a questionnaire.The research condcuted was was adminidtered through a group adminstered method since students answered the questionnaire in class.
STEP 6 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
How does my theoretical approach explain the results or findings? How do my results/findings fit with previous research previous ?
The data that the researcher collected allows them to access the cigarette usage amoungst minors has increased.This is shown in the fact that adult usuage is similar to minors.. This also means tha in the future the sale of tobacco will tise and illnesses and deaths in relation to tobacco will also rise. The theoretical appraoch conducted seeks to understand why and how youth have access to tobacco products despite being underaged. Based upon findings it is apparent that black/african and colored males seem to use more of this product while females white females are seen to use more of this prodcut
STEP7: DISCUSSION AND REPORT WRITING
Who is the audience that will read my report? How long should my report be ? How will i strucutre my report(headings) ?
The audience is attracted and interested in the research paper because it is very divesre and may attract colloge and school students if they want to conduct a similar resesrch and may ppeal to health organisations to prevent ilnesses and disease.