In both cases, Tier 1 interventions are quite relevant to the broader population at the elementary level, and can therefore benefit the whole class. In the Unfocused/Inattentive case, instruction around breaking down multi step directions can reinforce this difficult skill, even for students who do not have a particular challenge in this area. In the Talkative case, whole class instruction on conversation norms and social skills is critical for facilitating effective and respectful group discussions.
In both cases, Tier 2 interventions shift the focus to the individual students to apply the lessons from Tier 1 to their specific situations. In the Unfocused/Inattentive case, the student is provided with sensory tools to aid in focusing his attention. In the Talkative case, the student receives individual coaching to bring her awareness to the conventions for participating in a group discussion.
In both cases, Tier 1 data tracking is used to monitor the student’s behavior and inform the interventions ahead. Tier 2 data tracking offers an assessment which can corroborate and further inform the Tier 1 data.
The main distinction between the two cases is in Tier 3. In the Unfocused/Inattentive case, since the issue has persisted to this point (despite the interventions of Tier 1 and 2), outside support is necessary. This may include an official diagnosis of ADD/ADHD and corresponding medical intervention, ongoing counseling to support the student in breaking tasks into steps, and outside support to craft in-class interventions that aid the student’s focus. In contrast, the student in Talkative case can be supported through in-class strategies such as Self-Monitoring & End-of-day check-ins, and ongoing reflection on specific goals. The main reason for this distinction is that the Unfocused/Inattentive student is at-risk academically and all resources must be utilized to make sure that he is supported to keep up with the flow of class. The “Talkative” students has very real goals that are important to address, but she is not at risk academically, and can therefore afford to work on her goals on a longer time horizon.