Reproductive system (Male (Epididymis- this is where the sperm go after…
Testes produce male sex cells (sperm) or spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules that are in each testis) and hormones likes testosterone (helps the sperm mature and responsible for secondary male sex characteristics –body and facial hair, muscles and deep voice)
Scrotum is the sac suspended between the two thighs and this is where the testes are housed
Scrotum is located outside of the body, the temperature is lower, which is a must for sperm production
Epididymis- this is where the sperm go after they develop in the seminiferous tubules. It is a tightly coiled tube that is approximately 20 feet long.
Job: store sperm while they mature and become motile
Produces a fluid that becomes part of the semen and connects with the next tube
Vas deferens- receives sperm and fluid from the epididymis. It goes up into the abdominal cavity and curves behind the bladder and joins with the seminal vesicle
Job: passageway and a temporary storage area for sperm
Also it is the tube that gets cut in a vasectomy
Seminal vesicles- 2 small pouch like tubes that have a glandular lining that produces a thick yellow fluid rich in sugar that provides nutrients for the sperm. This fluid is a large makeup of semen
Ejaculatory ducts-2 short tubes that are formed from the union of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles.
Job: carry sperm and fluids known collectively as semen through the prostate gland and into the urethra
Prostate gland- a donut shaped gland that produces an alkaline secretion that increases the sperm motility and neutralizes the acidity in the vagina
During ejaculation, the muscular tissue in the prostate gland contracts to help the expulsion of the semen into the urethra
Cowper’s glands located under the prostate
Job: secrete a mucus that serves as a lubricant for intercourse, and alkaline fluid which decreases the acidity of urine that resides in the urethra
Urethra carries both urine and semen
Penis external male organ that is responsible for depositing semen in the vagina, and the elimination of urine.
Female Reproductive System
Ovaries the female gonads. Small and almond shaped and are attached to the uterus by ligaments
Contains thousands of small sacs called follicles with each follicle containing an immature ovum (female sex cell)
When an ovum matures, the follicle enlarges and then ruptures to release the mature ovum (process called ovulation)
Occurs usually every 28 days
Ovaries also produce hormones that help in the development of the reproductive organs and give rise to the secondary sexual characteristics
Fallopian tubes- two tubes that are 5 inches long and attached to the upper part of the uterus. The ends (lateral) are above the ovaries but are not connected to them.
The ends have fingerlike projections (fimbriae) which helps move the ovum
Job: serves as a passageway for the ovum as the ovum moves down toward the uterus. This is where fertilization takes place
Uterus- hollow muscular organ that is pear shaped.
Job: organ of menstruation, allows the development and growth of the fetus and contracts to aid in the expulsion of the fetus during birth
Divided into three sections
Fundus- (the top portion)
Body (corpus)- middle section
Cervix- Narrow bottom section, which attaches to the vagina
Inner layer-endometrium has a layer of specialized epithelium which provides for implantation of the fertilized ovum and helps aid in the development of the growing fetus.
If fertilization does not occur, the endometrium deteriorates and causes bleeding (menstruation)
The middle layer is myometrium (muscular)
Allows for the expansion of the uterus during pregnancy and contracts to expel baby
Outer layers (perimetrium) is a serous membrane
Vagina muscular tube that connects the cervix of the uterus to the outside of the body
Job; serves as a passageway for the menses, receives sperm, and semen from the males, and is the organ of copulation and acts as a birth canal
Lines with a mucous membrane a with rugae (folds) that allows the vagina to expand for childbirth and intercourse
Bartholin’s glands(vestibualr glands) each side of the vaginal opening
Secretes mucus for lubrication for intercourse.
Vulva-collective name for the external genital area.
Mons veneris (mons pubis) is the triangular pad of fat covered with hair
Labia majora are the tow large folds of fatty tissue. Enclose and protect the vagina
Labia minora- two smaller hairless folds , the area of the vulva located inside the
Breasts or mammary glands- contain lobes that are separated into sections by connective tissue and fatty tissue
Milk ducts located in the tissue
The main function of the glands is to secrete milk (lactate) after childbirth.
Diseases and disorders both male and female can have
AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This virus attacks the immune system so that it is unable to fight off infections and diseases which eventually causes death.
It can spread through sexual secretions or blood, and from an infected mother to her infant during pregnancy or childbirth
Can remain free of symptoms for years but can still spread the virus
After initial asymptomatic period individuals develop early symptomatic HIV infection, called Class B (formally known as Aids-related complex or ARC)
S/S +blood test, lack of infection resistance, appetite loss, weight loss, recurrent fever, night sweats, skin rashes, diarrhea, fatigue and swollen lymph nodes
When WBC level drops below 200cells /cubic millimeter opportunistic diseases occur (pneumocystis jiroveci, Candidiasis, and Karposi’s Sarcoma
Tx- No cure, trying to develop a vaccine. Take a drug cocktail (no cure) Prevention best method, should avoid multiple sex partners, not share needles for drug users, a condom and effective spermicide should be used to form a protective barrier during intercourse
One of the most frequent occurring STDs and is caused by several strains of chlamydia organism
Can be spread from mother to baby during childbirth, and can cause severe eye infections or pneumonia
S/S (similar to gonorrhea) Males will have burning when urinating, and a mucoid discharge. Females frequently are asymptomatic, although some will have a discharge
This infection can cause PID and sterility in women if not treated
Can be treated with antibiotics
Frequently called “the clap” is caused by gonococcus bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
S/S males have a greenish yellowish discharge, burning when urinating, sore throat, and swollen glands. Females, are usually asymptomatic but may experience dysuria, pain in the lower abdomen, and greenish –yellow vaginal discharge
Infected moms can pass on to their babies and it can affect eyes causing blindness. To prevent this a drop of silver nitrate or antibiotic is routinely placed in the eyes of newborns
Tx with large doses of antibiotics
A viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus type II
S/S burning sensation, fluid filled vesicles that rupture and form painful ulcers and painful urination.
After sores heal, the virus lays dormant. (Can spread still) Repeated attacks, but those attacks can be milder.
Tx pain management and antiviral medication
Parasites that are usually transmitted sexually and can spread by contact with clothing, bed linen, or other items that contain lice
S/S intense itching and redness of the perineal area or to other ares that have hair like armpits, eyelashes
Topical lotions or creams are used to kill lice
Caused by the spirochete bacterium
S/S occur in stages
Primary Stage- a painless chancre or sores appear on penis or vulva or cervix chancre heals within several weeks
Stage II (Occurs if chancre not treated) the organism enters the bloodstream and causes a rash that does not itch, a sore throat, fever, HA, malaise and swollen glands
Stage III (years later) damage to heart and blood vessels, gait and paralysis, brain damage causes mental disorders, deafness and blindness damage is irreversible and death occurs
Early diagnosis treat with antibiotics and can cure the first two stages
Caused by a parasitic protozoan, Trichomonas vaginalis.
S/S large amount of frothy, yellow green, foul smelling, discharge. Men may experience urethral itching.
Sometimes (rare) may expel the parasite without treatment, otherwise Flagyl is used to treat. Both partners must be treated.
Diseases and Abnormal Conditions Female
Breast tumors can be benign or malignant.
S/S lump or a mass, a change in size or shape, discharge from the nipple.
BSE recommended once a month
Examined in front of a mirror to look for changes in appearance, in a warm shower after soaping, and while laying down in supine position
CBE is recommended q3 years for women in their 20s and 30s and q year starting at 40.
Mammograms and US can detect tumors up to two years before they are felt
Treatment lumpectomy, simple mastectomy, or a radical mastectomy (removal of breast tissue, underlying muscles, and axillary lymph nodes)
If cancerous chemo and radiation
Cancer of the cervix and/or uterus is common and can be detected by a Pap smear
Most common cause is HPV
S/S abnormal vaginal discharge and bleeding,
S/S of uterine enlarges uterus, a watery discharge, and abnormal bleeding
Treatment- hysterectomy (uterus and cervix), or a panhysterectomy, chemo, radiation
Vaccine to prevent infection caused by HPV
Endometriosis is an abnormal growth of the endometrial tissue outside the uterus
Causes sterility if fallopian tubes become blocked
S/S pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, and dysmenorrhea
Treatment- differ with age, pain medications and or surgery
Ovarian cancer- one of the most common causes of cancer death in women.
Frequently occurs in ages 40-65
S/S vague discomfort in abdominal region, mild GI disturbances like constipation and or diarrhea, abdominal distention, and urianary frequency (3/4 of cases go undetected until it metastasized to abdomen)
Treatment- surgical removal of all the reproductive organs, and affected lymph nodes, chemo and radiation
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is inflammation of the cervix, the endometrium, fallopian tubes, and at times the ovaries
Caused by bacteria from a sexually transmitted infection, viruses, and fungi
S/S pain in the lower abdomen, fever, and a purulent(pus) drainage (vaginal)
Treatment- antibiotics, increased fluid intake, rest, and or pain medication
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)- a group of symptoms that appear 3-14 days prior to menstruation.
Usually peak in late 20s and early 30s. Cause is unknown but may be related to hormonal or biochemical imbalance, poor nutrition, or stress.
S/S nervousness, irritability, depression, HA, edema, backache, constipation, adnominal bloating, food cravings, temporary weight gain and breast tenderness and enlargement
Treatment is relieving symptoms and methods include, diet modifications, exercise, massage, light therapy, stress reduction, diuretics and analgesics
Diseases and Abnormal Conditions Male
Epididymitis inflammation of the epididymis
Caused by gonococcus, strep, or staph
Frequenty occurs with a UTI, or prostate infection, mumps or a STD
Not treated can cause scarring and sterility
S/S intense pain in the testes, swelling and fever
Treatment includes antibiotics, cold applications, scrotal support, and pain medication
an inflammation of the tests, usually caused by mumps, pathogens, or injury.
Lead to atrophy of the testes and cause sterility
S/S- swelling of the scrotum, pain, and fever
Treatment- includes antibiotics, antipyretics, scrotal support, and pain medication
Prevention include mumps vaccinations and using measures to prevent STDs
Prostatic hypertrophy or hyperplasia
also called hyperplasia- is an enlargement of the prostate gland.
Common in men over 50 and it can be benign caused by inflammation, a tumor, or a change in hormonal activity or a cancerous condition
S/S difficulty in starting to urinate, frequent urination, nocturia, dribbling, UTI, and when the urethra is blocked… urinary retention.
Treatment- fluid restriction, antibiotics, and prostatic massage, a prostatectomy, or a transurethral resection
Can have the same symptoms as prostatic hypertrophy or it may not have any symptoms
A screening (blood test) PSA can detect a substance released by the cancer cells and aid in early detection/dx
Digital exam may show a hard, abnormal mass in the prostate gland
Biopsy will diagnose it
If cancer, prostatectomy, radiation, and estrogen therapy (decreases testosterone) are main treatments
cancer of the testes. Usually occurs in men from 20 to 35.
Highly malignant and can spread rapidly
S/S painless swelling of the testes, a heavy feeling, and an accumulation of fluid.
Treatment- orchiectomy (surgical removal of the testis, chemo, radiation)
Recommended start self exams at the age of 15
After a warm shower, using both hands, each testicle should be examined separately by placing the index finger under the testicle and the thumbs on top. The testicle should be gently rolled between fingers to feel for lumps, nodules, or extreme tenderness. Look for signs of swelling or any change in appearance.
Function is to produce life
Although the anatomic parts are different in male and female, they both have the same type of organs
Consists of gonads and accessory organs
Gonads are the sex glands (testes and ovaries)
Ducts (tubes) that carry the sex cells and the secretions