cardiovascular and haematological systems (Vascular disorders and…
cardiovascular and haematological systems
Structural, infectious and inflammatory disorders
Mitral valve regurgitation (left ventricle into left atrium)
Mitral valve prolapse
Mitral stenosis obstruction of blood flowing from the left
atrium into the left ventricle
Aortic regurgitation is the flow of blood back into the left ventricle
from the aorta during diastole.
Aortic valve stenosis is narrowing of the orifice between the left
ventricle and the aorta.
The repair, rather than replacement, of a cardiac valve is referred
to as valvuloplasty.
A commissurotomy is the procedure
performed to separate the fused leaflets
Cardiomyopathy is a heart muscle disease associated with cardiac dysfunction.
Dilated CM is distinguished by significant
dilation of the ventricles
In Hypertrophic CM, the heart muscle increases in size and mass, especially
along the septum
Infective endocarditis is an infection of the valves and endothelial
surface of the heart.
formation of blood cells
sinus node dysrhythmias - sinus bradycardia, tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia
Atrial dysrhythmias, fultter, atrial fibrillation, premature atrial complex,
Conduction of impulses
ECG, pacemakers, cardioversion, defibrillation, Meds: Lidocaine, atenolol (Tenormin) Propanolol, Labetolol (Brunner p 690)
Coronary vascular disorders
Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA)
Coronary artery stent, transmyocardial revascularization, brachytherapy,
CABG - Coronary artery bypass graft
ACUTE HEART FAILURE
Cardiogenic shock occurs when the heart cannot pump enough
blood to supply the amount of oxygen needed by the tissues.
Pericardial effusion refers to the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac - Cardiac tamponade - compression of the heart.
Vascular disorders and problems of peripheral circulation
Arteriosclerosis is the most common disease of the arteries; the term means hardening of the arteries.
Thromboanginitis obliterans (Buergers disease
Aortitis is inflammation of the aorta, particularly of the aortic
Aortic aneurysm p836 - thoracic or abdominal
AND ARTERIAL THROMBOSIS
Venous thrombosis, thrombophlebitis, Phlebothrombosis, DVT
Raynauds disease intermittent arteriolar vasoconstriction
Chronic venous insufficiency
Leg ulcers & cellulitis
LYMPHEDEMA AND ELEPHANTIASIS
LYMPHANGITIS AND LYMPHADENITIS
Aplastic - damage to marrow cells
Myelodysplastic syndromes disorders of myeloid stem cell that result in dysplasia of one or more types of cell lines.
Hemolytic anaemia - RBC shortened lifespan
Sickle cell anaemia
Polycythemia - increased RBC /haematocrit
Leukopenia and neutropenia (decreased leukocytes neutrophils)
Leukocytosis and the Leukemias
Acute myeloid leukemia
Chronic myeloid leukemia
Acute lymphocytic leukemia
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia