10.urban management and challenges of continuity and change (issues that…
10.urban management and challenges of continuity and change
key issue that arises from urban management
potential solutions to segregation
Planning policies for diversity of housing
- In Perry Bar, Birmingham, the 2022 Commonwealth Games Athletes Village will be used for housing after the event.
£165 million investments to help support 5,000 new homes.
- areas with greater diversity associated with more inter-ethnic contact lowers ethnic animosity, whereas 'white' neighbourhoods with little diversity are unaffected.
Laws to stop discrimination in the rental market
NHS postcode lottery
may escalate inequality. (treatment based on where you live)
Stratford Food Bank has seen a 45% increase in the last financial year.
factors causing segregation
- according to the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, income inequality is highest in London, Reading, Brackwell, Guildford and Watford.
unforeseen consequences of past 'social' policies
- Education reforms in the 20th century and full time qualified jobs increased the rich and poor gap. Beginning of social exclusion
- impossible to get on the property ladder. landlords rise prices dependent on demand, but also to exclude certain social groups.
- past government policies on council estates marginalised poorer members of the community
- refugee communities in Potsmouth, Rotherham and Swansea. 50% of governments do not allow assylum seekers whereas ones who do have overpopulated areas.
- some places are perceived ad dangerous (London riots)
the larger the city, the more inequality there is.
issues that arise from urban management
an area where increased demand results in rising prices rather than increased output.
consequently leads to
. London based firms tend to dominate the national economy.
1 hectare of land at White city will become another Imperial College research hub, costing £3 billion.
Francis Cric Institute is going to be the biggest biomedical research centre in the world
. 1500 scientists from around the world collaborating. Extremely high profiled people going to push current residents out.
high urban poverty level
Foster + Partners
won a competition in 2015 to redesign an iconic district in central Cairo, vowing to "set the benchmark for urban regeneration throughout the country.'
master plan has come under criticism because it is going to cater for 90% of the rich
and not for the real people.
£30 billion project - houses, hospitals, clinics, mosques, schools, 5 million resident.s
rise of megacities
- Mexico city
Mexico City Metropolitan has grown over 6 times larger since 1960,
with a population of over 8.5 million people.
released 4 million tonnes of pollutants each year
Mexico's housing developments cannot withstand the weather and climate changes
and will not last the 50 years minimum they were promised
clean water, sanitation and clean air are ongoing problems
Huge pressure to expand airport capacity (Heathrow runway is being built)
people on average spent 84 hours in traffic going nowhere
congestion charge but it is still a huge issue
2000 new people arrive every 8 days
house prices rise by 10% each year.
National rate is only 3.1%.
London needs 42,000 new homes each year
effects of re-imaging and regeneration
things you are surrounded by that influence your perception of things.
social networking and technology has transformed the way we communicate, learn, consume, create and share information.
We now perceive settlements as places where information and knowledge is exchanged, rather than physical places.
Transition Town network
is the most advanced transition down. They have their
By encouraging local purchasing of food,
3X more jobs were created and 5X income was generated for the local economy.
Transition towns utilise
bottom up initiatives
to address food supply, transport, energy and housing.
All in response to rising energy prices and climate change.
Founded in 2005. Community led.
Smart Cities / Safe Cities
Digital, health, infrastructure and personal safety
Tokyo is considered the safest city.
Jakarta and Johannesburg are most unsafe cities
Stalled spaces, Glasgow
22 hectares for cultural and creative work and activites
the ward was an extremely derelict area, but this will bring communities together
pop up sculptures, outdoor education, play area, exhibitions, etc
Robsons 1975 model
although cities no longer resemble a particular model, they still reflect the main processes highlighted.
segregation is highlighted on the Burgess model
which is still true today. the perceived need to be close to potential work creates a structure of income.
Hoyt's emphasis on sector development
along routes in very significant still.
Robson's model for Sunderland reflects elements of both the Burgess and Hoyt model but also indicates modifications to take into account
Burgess model was more applicable before WW1, before social housing and government legislation on rent levels