Anaesthetic and Resuscitation Drugs (local (Lidocaine(Lignocaine)…
Anaesthetic and Resuscitation Drugs
indications: used to treat anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and seizures. It is also used to relieve muscle spasms and to provide sedation before medical procedures. This medication works by calming the brain and nerves.
side effects: Drowsiness, dizziness, tiredness, blurred vision, or unsteadiness may occur
mechanism of action: Benzodiazepines are positive allosteric modulators of the GABA type A receptors (GABAA). The GABAA receptors are ligand-gated chloride-selective ion channels that are activated by GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain.
Acute narrow-angle glaucoma
Severe hepatic deficiencies (hepatitis and liver cirrhosis decrease elimination by a factor of two)
Severe renal deficiencies (for example, patients on dialysis)
Severe sleep apnea
Severe depression, particularly when accompanied by suicidal tendencies
Pregnancy or breast feeding
Caution required in elderly or debilitated patients
storage conditions: stored at room temperature
route of administration: Intramuscular or intravenous and Oral route
Mechanism of action:alters signal conduction in neurons by prolonging the inactivation of the fast voltage-gated Na+ channels in the neuronal cell membrane responsible for action potential propagation. With sufficient blockage, the voltage-gated sodium channels will not open and an action potential will not be generated
indications: Lidocaine injection is used to numb an area of your body to help reduce pain or discomfort caused by invasive medical procedures such as surgery, needle punctures, or insertion of a catheter or breathing tube.
Heart block, second or third degree (without pacemaker)
Severe sinoatrial block (without pacemaker)
Serious adverse drug reaction to lidocaine or amide local anesthetics
Hypersensitivity to corn and corn-related products (corn-derived dextrose is used in the mixed injections)
Concurrent treatment with quinidine, flecainide, disopyramide, procainamide (class I antiarrhythmic agents)
Prior use of amiodarone hydrochloride
side effects: sleepiness, muscle twitching, confusion, changes in vision, numbness, tingling, and vomiting. It can cause low blood pressure and an irregular heart rate.
storage conditions: stored at room temperature with exposure to light or at 5°C with protection from light.
route of administration: intravenous, subcutaneous, topical, by mouth
Mechanism of action: reversibly stabilizes the neuronal membrane with decreases its permeability to sodium ions. Depolarization of the neuronal membrane is inhibited thereby blocking the initiation and conduction of nerve impulses.
Local anesthesia of oral and pharyngeal mucous membranes (sore throat, cold sores, mouth ulcers, toothache, sore gums, denture irritation
Otic pain (earache)
Surgical or procedural local anesthesia
side effects: seizures, coma, irregular heart beat, respiratory depression
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
abnormal heart rhythm
decreased lung function
Large Open Wound
Anemia from Pyruvate Kinase and G6PD Deficiencies
storage conditions: stored at a temperature less than 40 degrees Celsius, preferably between 15-30 degrees Celsius
Route of administration: Topical, Oral
mechanism of action:
Epinephrine acts on alpha and beta-adrenergic receptors. Epinephrine acts on alpha and beta receptors and is the strongest alpha receptor activator .Through its action on alpha-adrenergic receptors, epinephrine minimizes the vasodilation and increased the vascular permeability that occurs during anaphylaxis
indications:Anaphylaxis, and Hypotension Associated With Septic Shock
contraindications: Epinephrine is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to sympathomimetic amines, in patients with angle closure glaucoma, and patients in shock (nonanaphylactic).
route of administration: Adrenalin is administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously
side effects:anxiety, apprehensiveness, restlessness, tremor, weakness, dizziness, sweating, palpitations, pallor, nausea and vomiting, headache, and respiratory difficulties
storage condition: Store between 20° to 25°C controlled room temperature
Second- or third-degree A-V block (except in patients with a functioning artificial pacemaker).
Sinus node disease, such as sick sinus syndrome or symptomatic bradycardia (except in patients with a functioning artificial pacemaker) .
Known hypersensitivity to adenosine.
indications:Conversion to sinus rhythm of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), including that associated with accessory bypass tracts
side effects: sweating, palpitations, chest pain, hypotension , headache, Shortness of breath/dyspnea , dizziness,numbness Nausea
route of administration: administered intravenously
mechanism of action:slows conduction time through the A-V node, can interrupt the reentry pathways through the A-V node, and can restore normal sinus rhythm in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
storage conditions:stored at 4 degrees C is at least 25 weeks.
mechanism of action:Barbiturates bind to the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor complex and decrease the rate of GABA dissociation . These actions increase permeability of the postsynaptic membrane to chloride, causing membrane hyperpolarization and reduced excitability
seizure disorder (epilepsy)
increased pressure in the skull
severe trauma to the skull
some types of convulsions
unconsciousness resulting from liver cell deterioration
Poisoning by Drug Phenobarbita
lack of coordination
problems with remembering things
respiratory arrest and death
route of administration: Oral,rectal,parenteral
storage conditions: stored at controlled room temperature away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.