Managing for Inclusion: Equality and Workplace Diversity (The Glass…
Managing for Inclusion: Equality and Workplace Diversity
it is necessary to manage diversity
Changing composition of the labour market
Increase in dual-earner households with dependent children, single-parent households, and the ‘sandwich generation’
Those born in Europe are declining while those born in Asia and Africa are increasing
Australian population:28% born overseas, third highest in the world
Increasing labour force participation of women
Embracing the LGBT community
Elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation
what is diversity
Indigenous Australians comprise of approximately 2.4% of the population
physical characteristics, Workplace diversity refers to differences among people at work,Religious beliefs, educational attainment, experience, family status, parental status, pregnancy
Term used to describe differences among individuals
Solutions for Social Dilemmas
The public policy problem - overcoming organisational participation
educational curricula at primary/secondary level
not focusing on encouraging just diversity, but 'effective' diversity
instead developing legislation that requires firms to develop and implement diversity initiatives that result in sustainable success
avoiding the creation of legislation that results in 'protected classes' of workers
The management problem - overcoming individual and managerial participation
embedding the value of diversity to mission, vision statements
measuring managerial performance from a long-term perspective
keeping work team/group sizes small
creating a work environment that encourages and facilitates communication between diverse employees
Developing subordinate goals which can only be achieved through cooperation among diverse members
Developing measurable objectives for diversity
Assisting individuals in realizing that their self-interest can be facilitated by embracing organisational diversity initiatives
Aligning individual interest with organisational diversity initiatives by restructuring incentives
The Glass Ceiling
Overcoming the glass ceiling
Eliminating the stigmatisation of men who
choose to stay home for family reasons
Changing societal norms around the role
of women and eradicating gender bias
Introduction of paid-parental leave, especially for men that goes beyond 'one week'.
Introducing gender quotas for company
Realising that a more representative blend of women and men in senior roles makes good business sense
of key management positions on company boards are held by women in Australia, however in public service
of all senior executive positions are filled by women
Eastern European and Scandinavian nations lead the way in abolishing the glass ceiling
: A phenomenon that limits the advance of women and other minority groups to senior managerial positions in organisations
Social Dilemmas of Workplace Diversity
Social Identity Theory
Individuals tend to validate identity by favoring their in-groups rather than out-groups
People may perceive people outside their in-group as similar
Less likely to trust them
Inhibits flow of information
Individuals are attracted to those who are similar to them in some aspect and form in-groups with them
More likely to reciprocate favours
Organizations must be able to mitigate perceived differences to become efficient
Can create dilemmas for individual and managerial participation
dependent upon how well the social dilemmas relating to individual and managerial participation are addressed
Incorrect perceptions in relation to the relationship between homogenous workers and employee turnover
Belief that diversity initiatives benefit society not organisations implementing them, organisations bear the costs and accrue little benefit.
Creates barriers for selecting highly talented candidates due to ill informed and short sighted views.
The success of organisational diversity initiatives is dependent upon the degree to which its employees embrace/ resist them.
Formation of subgroups along social categories may result in restricting the movement of information.
Due to exclusion, employees may form further informal subgroups resulting in subgroup competition.
A consequence of the dilemma of individual participation.
Managers likely to recruit individuals they perceive to be similar to them (i.e. their social category).
Individuals may also seek out managers that are similar to them
Those that do not 'fit in' often leave resulting in a homogenous workforce
Can result in 'power battles'