Collaborative learning: Theoretical foundations and applicable strategies…
Collaborative learning: Theoretical foundations and
applicable strategies to university
Collaborative learning is a construct that identifies a current strong field, both in face-to-face and virtual education.
Three converging theoretical
sources are analyzed:
Socio-cognitive conflict theory
Distributed cognition theory
A model of strategies that can be implemented by teachers to develop socio-cognitive collaboration is presented
This model integrates and systematizes several academic group animation techniques developed within the collaborative learning field.
These integrated techniques, within a coherent and unified didactic intention,allow talking more about strategies than independent and dissociated techniques
Socio-cognitive Conflict Theory.
For this theory, the socio-cognitive conflict is the determining factor of intellectual development.
This is transmitted in the core of the social interaction, primarily in the context of cooperation between peers
The concept of cognitive conflict is implicit in the equilibration theory, often understood as disturbance of equilibrium in the subject-object relationship.
The cognitive conflict that enables operational progress is mainly social that means an exchange situation (cooperative) with others happens
This implies that individual consciousness emerges due to and through communicative interaction with
The importance of this primary social interactivity is that through it the instruments and signs of culture are “internalized”.
Consciousness (as intra-psychological phenomenon) emerges then from the intersubjectivity, understood as mediated communication
Distributed Cognition Theory.
This current is highly heterogeneous
This heterogeneity is from a position very close to the sociocultural approach and the situated cognition until one closer to social- cognitive systemic processing
The concept of distributed cognition emerges as a critical posture in cognitive psychology and, even more, in cognitive science.
The essential idea is that information processing is performed on a human scale; it is not an exclusively individual, mental or internal phenomenon.
Human cognition is integrated into the social and cultural context in which it happens (in this sense, it is about situated cognition) and, therefore, cognitive functioning should not be considered in terms of individual conscience, but “distributed” in the environment of tools and involved social agents.
The aforementioned theoretical sources are the expression of the strong rise of the constructivist and social-constructivist perspectives in psychology and education, which put the emphasis not only on the result of cognitive
association, but on the process of negotiation and construction of shared meanings.
In general, there is a consensus that the application of existing communication technologies to education involves strengthening a cooperative conception of learning, in other words, socio-constructivist.
Strategies for Cooperation Development.
The contemporaneous boom of socio-constructivist currents on education and, more specifically on collaborative learning, is sometimes more rhetorical than real, giving rise to ingenuous, spontaneous and abstract postures of what cognitively accompanied work involves.
Idea of Collaborative Didactic Model.
A model means mainly integration of parts as a coherent whole. A model is a conceptual construction purported to be used as an action guide and orientation.
In short, all strategies of the proposed model have a leit-motiv, in the sense that they are targeted to recover and develop the socio-cognitive link, coordination with others, co-participation in conceptual construction and learning of community action,