First 5 Presidents (Washington (Hamilton's Economic Plan
First 5 Presidents
Hamilton's Economic Plan
- Federal Bank
- Assume the states' debts to build credibility
- Was effective in getting the US economy started
- Included taxing different products
- Taxes were placed on the production of whiskey
- Angered western farmers who depended on their breweries
- Western farmers rose up in rebellion, prompting Washing to lead the US army to quash the rebellion
- Due to Washington's heroic reputation, the rebellion fizzled before he arrived
- Showed the strength of the new Federal Gov.
Washington's Farewell Address
- Warned against foreign alliances and entanglements
- Warned against the formation of political parties
- Future presidents followed the advice on foreign alliances, but the warning against political parties was immediately ignored.
- 1789 to 1796
- Elected unanimously in 1789 and with a clear majority in 1792
- Retired after second term, establishing a precedent every president except FDR would follow.
- The French Ambassador was attempting to recruit Americans in conflicts against Britain.
- Washington finally summoned Citizen Genet and had him expelled
- But an effect of this was further splitting the government into a pro-British and pro-French factions, which would align along party lines of the Democratic-Republicans and Federalists
Election of 1796
- Jefferson became Adams Vice President, despite being from a different party
- Jefferson actively used his position as Vice President to weaken Adams chance at re-election
- 3 French agents had approached US diplomats and asked for a bribe before they could speak to the French Minister
- Caused anti-French sentiment in the US, leading to the Alien and Sedition Acts.
- Also led to the Quasi-War
- Finally, the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions by Jefferson and Madison respectively stated that a state could nullify a law it deemed unconstitutional, a direct response to the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Federalists vs Democratic-RepublicansFederalists
- Pro British
- Pro Federal Gov
- Adams and Hamilton
- Pro French
- Pro States
- Jefferson and Madison
- As the election of 1800 rolled around, it was clear that the Democratic-Republicans would defeat Adams
- Adams appointed several Federalist judges in federal districts to preserve the Federalists' power in the judiciary
- Led to the case Marbury v. Madison, which led to the ruling that established the court's power to declare laws unconstitutional - judicial review
- 2nd Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, appointed by Adams
- Presided over the court for 35 years, mostly made pro-federal government rulings
- Established judicial review
- Important in shaping the court into a body which checks the power of both the Executive and legislative branches of our government.
Era of Good Feeling
- The Federalists had largely disappeared by the 1816 election due to the backlash from the Hartford Convention and because the Democratic-Republicans had over time adopted several of the policies of the Federalists, decreasing their ideological differences
- Monroe faced no real opposition from Congress, as it was mostly controlled by the Republicans
- However, the Era of Good Feelings came to the end as the Democratic-Republican party fractured into 2 different parties due to internal differences.
- Stated that the Americas are closed off to European interests forever (following the collapse of the Spanish empire with revolutions across Latin America)
- Was enforced by future presidents, and gave the foundation for US involvement in Latin American affairs in the 1900s
- Largely depended on the British navy keeping the other European powers out of the Americas
- Maine as a free state, Missouri as a slave state
- Banned slavery above 36 30
- Controversial agreement, but it was a step towards both the Civil War and the abolition of slavery in the United States
- Signed between Monroe's Sec. of State John Q. Adams
- Gave the US Florida, which got rid of Spain as a threat to the US
War of 1812
- Declared as British navy kept impressing US sailors
- Was fought on two frontiers, the Canadian border and the East Coast
- Resulted in the White House getting burned down
- Eventually, it was clear that the US would not be beat by the British, especially with naval victories in the Great Lakes
- Finally, the war was ended with the Treaty of Ghent
- Opponents of the war called it "Mr. Madison's War"
- To pay for the cost of the war, Madison actually signed into existence of the 2nd Bank of the US
- Meeting of New England Federalists
- Threatened to secede if Congress did not pass their proposed Amendments
- But Madison had just signed the Treaty of Ghent, which the US saw as a victory. The Federalists were viewed as unpatriotic, and thus largely collapsed, leading to the domination of a single party during the Era of Good Feelings
Election of 1800
- Jefferson beat Adams, but tied with Aaron Burr, who was supposed to be his Vice President
- The election was thrown into the House of Representatives, which remained contested for 35 ballots as the Federalists backed Burr while the Republicans backed Jefferson
- Finally, Hamilton convinced Federalists to vote for Jefferson because he despised Burr. This led to Jefferson becoming the 3rd President of the United States
- To fund his war in Europe, Napoleon offered the US $15 million for the Louisiana Territory
- Jefferson agreed, even though he doubted the presidents ability to acquire territory
- Jefferson sent a commission led by Lewis and Clark which mapped out the uncharted territory. This was the first step in achieving America's "manifest destiny"
- The Louisiana Territory also gave the US access to the Mississippi River and New Orleans, the biggest port in the Americas.
- The pirates in Northern Africa demanded tribute and bribes for US ships to go into the Mediterranean
- Jefferson finally retaliated by sending the US navy to defeat the pirates
- The mission was a success, and boosted Jefferson's reputation
- It also showed the world that the US was not a nation to mess with
- Said that the US would not trade with either Britain or France
- Backfired and hurt the US economy as well as Jefferson's Presidency
- Limited Federal Gov
- Strong State gov
- Strict interpretation of the Constitution