REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM (ANATOMY OF REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES (MALE (VAS…
ANATOMY OF REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES
prepare for implantation and prepares for developing during pregnancy, also delivery of the fetus during childbirth and nurtures baby after birth
uterine (fallopian tube) , receives the ovulated oocyte, provides cite for fertilization, fertilization occurs inside fallopian tube, and attaches medially to uterus
regions include infundibulum that open end is funnel shaped and not directly connected to the ovary. also includes fimbriae that are finger like projections at the distal end that draws the ovum
LOcated b/w the urinary bladder and rectum, a hollow organ, and functions to receive a fertilized egg, retain the egg, and nourishes the fertilized egg
support for the uterus
attached to pelvis
REGIONS OF UTERUS
area where uterine tube enters
narrow outlet that protrudes into the vagina opening into uterus
WALLS OF UTERUS
outer visceral perimetrum, covering of abdominal organs
middle layer of smooth muscle
inner layer that allows for implantation of a fertilized egg
serves as birth canal and receives penis during sexual intercourse
Contains erectile tissue, corresponds to male penis
contains opening to the urethra and greater vestibular gland
skin fold around vaginal opening
fatty pad of pubic area, covered by pubic haor after puberty
carries spem from epididymis to ejaculatory duct
Ccarries both sperm and urine, sperm enters from the ejeculatory duct
tightly coiled tube, functions to mature and store sperm cells and expels sperm
milky, white sticky mixture of secretions from many glands
produces a thick, alkaline, yellowish secretion
secrets a milky fluid that helps active sperm (allows for locomotion)
secrete an alkaline mucus in response to sexual stilumation, and lubricates penis for penetration jusr before ejuculation
divided sac of skin outside the abdomen that hold the testes
delivers semen into female reproductive tract
EVENTS OF FEMALE HORMONE CYCLES (3)
occurs in the ovaries leading to maturation and ovulation of the mature oocyte. has 3 phases
day 14, triggered by a sudden spike in LH caused by a steady increase estrogen stimulating the pituitary gland. the Graafian follicle then releases the oocyte. there is a slight rise in progesterone just before ovulation that causes the body temp. to rise.
LUTEAL PHASE (third)
day 15-28, when the follicle expels the oocyte, the empty shell becomes corpus luteum, it secretes progesterone, some estrogen and inhibin which suppresses FSH.
in the absence of pregnancy the corpus luteum becomes corpus albicians causing the decrease in progesterone and estrogen.
on the other hand if pregnancy occurs, the corpus luteum continues to secrete progesterone and estrogen.
day 1-14, it extends from the beginning of menstration until ovulation. FSH cells develop into primary follicle, it then secretes estrogen to become secondary follicle. only one follicle becomes Graafian follicle.
occurs in the uterus to prepare the uterus to prepare the uterus for implantation of the fertilized ovum.( 3 phases)
day 1-14, estrogen stimulates growth of blood vessels of the endometrium causing it to double in thickness, the thickening allows the egg to be caught to cause implantation
day 15-28, in response to rising levels of progesterone by the corpus luteum, the uterus becomes ready for pregnancy. uterine glands enlarge and secrete nutrients to sustain the embryo until implantation occurs.
if pregnancy does not occur, toward the end of phase LH levels drop due to high levels of progesterone
progesterone levels drop following decline in LH leading into menstrual phase
day 1-5 has a decline in estrogen and progesterone and cause spiral arteries to constrict, cells become ischemic and die. they are sloughed off or shed and the bleeding lasts 3-5 days
HORMONES OF REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE
at puberty stimulates sertoli cells for sperm production and maturation
GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE
released by hypothalamus in the brain to stimulate anterior pituitary gland to release LH and FSH
triggered by low levels of testosterone
controlled by negative feedback
stimulates seminiferous tubules to secrete testosterone
stimulates reproductive organ development and sex drive
causes secondary sex organs such as deepening of voice, increased hair growth, enlargement of skeletal muscles, thickening of bones
LUTEINIZING HORMONE (LH)
spike of hormone will trigger ovulation of the most mature follicle (only one) both LH and FSH are released by anterior pituitary gland in the brain
decrease release of FSH by anterior pituitary gland
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
stimulates the development and maturation of primary follicle into secondary follicle
primary female sex hormone released by follicle. low levels causes release of FSH. high levels cause relase of LH and GNRH. thickening of uterine wall, causes secondary sex characteristics
such as breast development, skeletal muscle growth and bone thickening, widening of hips, appearance of bodily hair, increase of fat beneath the skin, onset of menses.
gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH)
released by the hypothalamus in brain to stimulate anterior pituitary glandto release LH and FSH
MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
functions as a process by which new individuals (offspring) of a species are produced. there is also sexual reproduction that involves a male and female to fuse and produce a zygote.
testes are the primary sex organs in males. functioning to produce and disseminate large quantity of male game. to deliver the gamete .
functions in productions of female gamete ( ovum or egg) and preparation for support of developing embryo during pregnancy. the ovaries are the primary sex organ that deliver the egg and the Fallopian tubes.
DISORDERS OF REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES
Most common std and caused by bacteria
caused by bacteria and spread by sexual contact, even from mother to child during birth
caused by bacteria and spreads from person to person through direct contact
PUBIS LICE OR CRABS
caused by a parasite, usually located around pubic area, but also anywhere you have hair, can be spread through clothing or bedding also close personal conatact, can be cured
spread through sexual intercourse and other ways, not too many symptoms until activated
caused by a tiny parasite, most common in women, and can be passed from mother to baby
caused by human papilloma virus, no cure but prevent through vaccine, symptoms tend to be the same
caused by a herpes virus, not curable but can be treated