The First Four Presidents (Thomas Jefferson (Political Philosophy v.…
The First Four Presidents
U.S. foreign policy, certain elements still in effect today, passed under the Monroe administration. This prohibited any foreign powers from having a presence in the Western Hemisphere and was mainly aimed at Great Britain.
Meetings between Federalist party members, during which they discussed political problems that came about during Jefferson's presidency. Eventually, General Andrew Jackson's victory in New Orleans crushed the party and the Federalists no longer had an influence in U.S. government and politics.
War of 1812
War between the U.S. and Britain started in response to Britain blocking neutral trade with France. The U.S. saw this as a severe violation of international trade laws. The conflict was settled with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent.
Political Philosophy v. Adam's
Adams possessed more Federalist views that strongly opposed Jefferson's Republican-leaning philosophies. Federalist naturally had a strong and very literal interpretation of the Constitution, whereas Jefferson did not, which was made very clear when he purchased the Louisiana territory from France.
Controversial purchase of the Louisiana territory from France. Jefferson's loose interpretation of the Constitution led him to believe that the purchase was fairly and lawfully made.
Passed by Jefferson in response to Barbary Pirates incident. This prohibited American merchants from going into foreign ports.
Pirates would raid and claim U.S. ships as their own until the U.S. paid ransoms to Barbary rulers. Jefferson responded with the notion that the ransoms would not be paid and that and embargo would be instituted.
XYZ Affair/Alien+Sedition Acts/Virginia+Kentucky Resolutions
VA+KY Resolutions--- The state governments of Virginia and Kentucky claimed that the Alien+Sedition Acts were unconstitutional.
Alien+Sedition Acts--- Passed under the Adams administration in response to the XYZ Affair. Adams believed that by limiting foreign immigrants, reserving the right to deport them, and making seditious statements a punishable offense, national security would be strengthened.
XYZ Affair---Skirmish with France when French diplomats demanded money before engaging in any discussions to resolve the issue. This erupted into an informal and small-scale naval war and put strains on trade and foreign relations with France.
Appointed to Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court by John Adams during his presidency under the Midnight Judges Act. He quickly became the most popular judge in the Supreme Court and is the longest serving judge to this day.
Made at the very end of Adam's presidency. He wanted to stack the Supreme Court with Federalist judges in the event that Thomas Jefferson won the presidency. His most influential appointment was making John Marshall the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
Federalists v. Jeffersonian-Republicans
Rift between the two parties based on interpretations of the Constitution. Federalists favored strong central government with supporting state governments with less power, while Jeffersonians believed that weaker central government and strong state governments served as a better model for U.S. political structure.
Tax protest led by Major James McFarlane. Washington went to diffuse the situation with the help of private militias and peace keepers. This exposed more weaknesses within the Articles of Confederation.
Address made to the American people at the end of his second term as president. He urged Americans to stay out of permanent foreign alliances, not to get involved in foreign affairs, and to refrain from fostering the growth of political factions
Hamilton's Economic Plan
Repay federal debts, establish a national bank to manage federal funds, tax luxury items to increase federal revenue, and initiate protective tariffs to stimulate domestic business.