Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Chronic Bronchitis (Diagnostic findings…
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary
Other pharmacologic treatments that may be used in COPD include augmentation therapy, antibiotic agents, mucolytic agents, antitussive agents,
Pulmonary function tests
Screening for alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency
Dyspnea at rest. As COPD progress, dyspnea at rest may occur.
Dyspnea on exertion
Airway obstruction leads to hypoxia and pulmonary vasoconstriction , high resistance in pulmonary hypertension causes reduced circulating blood volume.
Chronic bronchitis is a disease of the airways and is defined as the presence of cough and sputum for at least 3 months in each 2 consecutive years. Allergens irritate the airways and leads to the production of the sputum by goblet cells
Optimization of bronchodilator medications
Oxygen therapy. Upon arrival of the patient in the emergency room, supplemental oxygen therapy is administered
Health care worker should assess patient’s exposure to risk factors.
Assess the patient’s past and present medical history.
Assess the signs and symptoms of COPD and their severity.
Assess the patient’s knowledge of the disease.
Health care worker should assess the vital signs
Health care worker should assess breath sounds and pattern.
Diaphragmatic breathing helps in reducing respiratory rate
Controlled coughing the nurse should instruct the patient in direct coughing
inspiratory muscle training
The nurse should administer corticoteroids appropriately
Exercise training helps to strengthen muscles
The nurse should advise the patient to stay immunized against influenza