L1 and L2 Learning (similarities (modified input (receptive skills, L1 and…
L1 and L2 Learning
L1 and L2 learners receive a simplified language
gradual language development
present progressive -ing, plural -s, irregular past forms, possessive 's, copula, articles "the" and "a", regular past -ed, third person singular present simple -s, auxiliary "be".
-ing (progressive), plural, copula ("to be"), auxiliary (progressive), article, irregular past, regular past -ed, third person singular -s, possessive 's.
negotiation of meaning
exchanges between learners and their interlocutors as they attempt to resolve communication breakdown and to work toward mutal comprehension
Speaker negotiate meaning to avoid conversational trouble or to revise language when trouble occurs.
L1 learners to communicate with everyone around them
for most L2 learners it is an obligation but some learn it for the pleasure of knowing
L2 for interaction whith others
talking about life outside the classroom.
context and ways of learning
interaction with teachers and classmates
learning specific language items, specially structures and individual words
interaction with families and friends
learning a lot of language in chunks
having lots of opportunities to experiment with language
L2 learners are not exposed to the language very much
L1 learners have a lots of opportunities to experiment with language
L1 learners have a period where they only listen or recieve information but they do not produce any
Silent period: Input before producing
L2 learners start learning the new language and shortly after they are asked to produce it
L1 are rarely corrected. People often reformulate what the child has said.
L2 teachers often correct learners. Learners are often asked to produce correct language.
L1 learners are motivated to learn language as they need to communicate.
L2 learners , they have expectations about how languages should be learnt.
language is heard all the time
language is heard in the classroom
Adult learners have fully developed cognitive skills.
L1 learning starts when the learner is a baby and continues through the early years.
L2 usually starts in primary school or secundary school
Learning through imitation, practice
L2 applications: mimicry and memorization.
Classroom activities emphasized them, and students learned dialogues and sentence patterns by heart. Because language development was viewed as the formation of habits
L2 is acquired after the first language, it is learned in a special context (school, private institute,etc) and it is learned for a purpose
Sometimes is adquired through exposure but often by being taught specific language items
L1 is acquired naturally in early childhood and families are the ones who teach it at first