SUSS PSY 355 PSYCHOLOGY OF CREATIVITY Study Unit 3: Controversies in …
SUSS PSY 355 PSYCHOLOGY OF CREATIVITY Study Unit 3:
Chapter 6: Culture & Creativity
What are the key
differences between the collectivistic
cultures of the East (e.g., Japan, China) and the
of the West (e.g., America, Australia)?
How does the
conception of selfhood differ in the East and West
? How are these conceptions of selfhood related to creativity (or the lack of it)?
Why are creators “dogmatic” people? Why are “nice” people not creative? Why are creative people not “nice”?
? What are the five ways in which multicultural experience can foster individual creativity?
Creativity in culture
Creativity in diverse cultures in the past and present
In his study, Ludwig discovered that:
exerted a profound influence on creative expression
,including: what was expressed, how it was expressed, why it was expressed and who expressed it.
Second, the notion of
“art for art’s sake” was not a universal creed
of artists around the world, even though it might be very popular in contemporary Western society
Culture and what is to be expressed
With respect to the question of what was expressed, every culture had its appropriate outlet for creative expression.
One form of expression might be
permissible in one culture but prohibited in another culture.
Culture and who expresses creativity
with respect to the question of who expressed it, this
varied from society to society
In certain traditional societies, men might show their creativity in woodcraft, sculpture and medicinal-healing practices, whereas women might show their creativity in basket weaving, making clothing, embroidery, rugs or pottery.
Culture and why creativity is expressed
With respect to the question of why it was expressed, the
function of creative
depended on which society
it was embedded in.
Prehistoric cavemen painted pictures of wild animals based on a magical belief that such paintings can attract the illustrated animals. Hence, paintings were made for a practical purpose (to fill the stomach) although the reasoning involved was magical (painting the act of killing a deer could result in the deed itself).
Creativity in vertical and horizontal domains
Through her cross-cultural comparison, Li made a distinction between two kinds of creative domains: horizontal and vertical domains.
are creative domains that have been structured in an
way such that their
core elements are susceptible to changes
For example, a jazz player has a lot of room to improvise during a musical performance as there are few rules to follow in this domain.
have been structured in a
way such that their
core elements are resistant to radical transformation
by the creator.
For example, classical musicians have little room to improvise as there are many rules to follow in this domain.
Horizontal vs vertical
To illustrate this difference, Li examined Western painting and traditional Chinese painting function, in relation to five parameters in the domain
western standards are subjective
and inclusive rather than clear and specific. Different agents may employ different standards to evaluate the same painting.
painting there is a
unified set of standards
which determines the quality of a painting. In accordance with the methodology and symbol system of traditional Chinese painting, a painting is
judged in terms of its brush work and ink use.
painting, it is
difficult to come to a consensus
operating in this domain.
feel the need to break old rules
– even those rules that they have created themselves – as well as to generate new rules.
This explains why in modern Western painting, the artist’s creativity often bear little relation or resemblance to the achievement of his predecessors.
there are explicit rules
which must be followed.
repainting over an image is not allowed
. This implies that if the painter makes a mistake or does not find a stroke to be satisfactory, he must discard the work and start afresh.
refers to the goal or
which practitioners in the domain strived for.
three key differences
in the aim of these two domains of painting.
Type of objects that can be represented.
painting, the artist can paint a
wide range of objects.
on what can or cannot be painted.
The aesthetics of painting.
painting, there are
many aesthetic categories
like colour, light, space, perspective, proportion and so on.
By contrast, the dominant aesthetic in
painting is spiritual and
derives from the three great traditions
of the Chinese, namely, Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism.
The way that objects can be represented.
artist can depict the object in a
multitude of ways
ink brush painting
does not allow
the artist an infinite number of
Symbol system & use
painting, there is
no basic element/system
which must be applied in a uniform way. Instead, each artist chooses an
individualised symbol system
For example, one artist may depict a rustic scene via a system of tiny dots of colours (Georges Seurat and Pointillism), whereas another artist may depict a similar scene through the use of bright colours and swirling brush strokes (Vincent van Gogh and Post-Impressionism).
The foundation of
basic symbol system of strokes
. Each stroke consists of an ink mark made with the Chinese brush and it has multiple functions.
For instance, a single stroke is used to outline a mountain contour whereas a stroke produced with the straight tip of the Chinese brush is used to symbolise a core characteristic such as the bamboo stem. In Chinese painting, the
artist’s strokes reflect the influence of a certain master.
no fixed materials/tools/method
to apply and adhere to. He is free to use any medium, in any way he prefers.
ink brush painting,
materials and tools are fixed
That is, the artist can only use Xuan paper, silk scrolls, Chinese ink and brush to paint a picture.
Also the artist does not have the freedom to use these items in a different way than what is prescribed by the domain, e.g., he cannot cut the Xuan paper into different shapes and paste them onto the silk scroll.
Alternative conceptions of creativity in the East
different cultures have contrasting conceptions of creativity.
Contrasting between east and west
Although Daoism and Confucianism may propose different pathways towards creativity, they stand in stark contrast to the
notion of the lone genius who
engages in a creative act by defying the crowd.
Due to the rise of individualism in the West, there is more room for rebelling against society in this culture.
same creative act of rebellion may be seen as less valuable
than making a social contribution to society (Confucianism) or disengaging from society (Daoism)
in the collectivistic culture of the East
According to Confucianism, humans are born with a good nature and although humans are born with natural creativity, their mind is not simply a mirror which is void or empty of intent.
mind needs continuous self-cultivation to reach its fullest potential
highly creative individual engages in this process of self-cultivation towards enlightenment
Natural creativity - Dao
The ancient Chinese believed in an ultimate force of nature known as the Dao.
This Eastern conception of creativity is termed as
natural creativity, as opposed to the Western conception of divine creativity
(Niu & Sternberg, 2006).
Another noteworthy feature in the Eastern conception of creativity was the
entwinement of human creativity with natural creativity.
That is, the individual could realise his creative potential by interacting with natural creativity.
Daoist creative process
According to Daoism, the creative process
involved the inner apprehension
of the Dao where all distinctions between subject (self) and object (non-self) vanished
What is the myth of the lone genius? What is wrong with it?
Problems with the myth
First, at the deepest level the
is motivated by a
desire for integration, connection and communion
with the community, not to stand apart from it,
e.g., artists seek to communicate via their paintings (Barron, 1972).
Second, this myth
assumes that a tradition is a form of blind obedience
to authority and therefore it must be repudiated.
This line of thinking is not correct. Stravinsky, a musical genius, commented that “a real tradition is not the relic of a past that is irretrievably gone; it is a living force that animates and informs the present”.
Third, the myth of the lone genius
does not consider the role of collaboration in fostering creativity.
There are many examples of fruitful collaboration that have led to great feats of creativity in the real world, e.g., James Watson and Francis Crick discovering the structure of DNA (Ng, 2013).
Myth of the lone genius
Refers to the
hyper-individualistic and de-contextualised approach to creativity
It describes the creator as being a rebel who struggles against society to discover or invent something original.
The myth of the lone genius is a cultural invention of the West which
took root during the Renaissance
, when artistic creation came to be idealised as the paradigm for the achievement of selfdiscovery, self-expression and self-definition.
Cross-cultural differences in creativity: East vs West
Multicultural experience and creativity
Multicultural experience refers to
all direct and indirect experiences
of encountering or interacting with elements &/or members of
(Leung, Maddux, Galinsky & Chiu, 2008).
Examples of this phenomenon range from eating at a foreign restaurant in one’s own society to living and working in a different country.
Empirical studies suggest that when a person holds apparently incongruent notions from two or more cultures, it enhances his ability to engage in creative conceptual expansion.
According to a cross-cultural study, many participants in the juxtaposition and fusion conditions spontaneously tried to
generate new ideas by integrating seemingly contrastive elements of different cultures
Multicultural experience can foster creativity in five ways.
First, the person is exposed to a wide range of behavioural and cognitive scripts when dealing with the vicissitudes of life.
Fifth, the person develops a higher degree of cognitive complexity as he resolves incongruent ideas and concepts between different cultures
Third, the person gains access to unconventional knowledge and beliefs after they have returned to their own cultures,
e.g., after a period of living in a liberal society, one may believe that it is the validity of ideas rather than the hierarchy of rank that determines whether a solution is good or right.
Psychological readiness for diversity.
Fourth, the person shows an increase in psychological readiness to recruit and seek out ideas from diverse sources and use them as inputs in dealing with practical issues in life.
Second, the person recognises that the same form or surface behaviour has different functions and implications,
e.g., assertive behaviour is seen as a form of psychological independence in the West, but a form of social immaturity in the East.
How to be a creative Asian
Asians are less creative than Westerners, but it should be stressed that “
culture is not destiny
” (i.e. not be viewed as being fixed/deterministic).
It’s possible for one to be a creative Asian in spite of cultural influences.
It should also be noted that western cultures have their drawbacks.
For example, extreme emphasis on the individual has led to the easy availability of guns in Western society. This has created a culture of violence in Western schools.
we should only combine what’s best of the East and West.
For example, the cultural strength of the West lies in its flexibility while the cultural strength of the East lies in its discipline.
This will require a level of flexibility, self -assertion and an inquisitive mind.
The intimate link between culture, selfhood, conflict and creativity
According to Ng (2001), a
, by definition, involves the introduction of novel elements into an established domain.
threatens conventional practices
, and which triggers social resistance.
are dogmatic people who
engage in conflict
and confrontation with other people in society in order to uphold creative ideas.
Culture, agreeableness and creativity
Ng (2007) also argued that
“nice” people are not creative and creative people are not “nice”.
The reasoning is as follows: “nice” people are agreeable individuals who go along with what the group says, instead of upsetting everyone by doing things their own way.
In contrast, creative people are not “nice “in the agreeable sense because they assert their views upon others.
Westerners, by virtue of their individualistic culture, are not “nice” in the agreeable sense.
A person with this pattern of personality (creative but not “nice”) behaves like the dogmatic creator who defends his ideas against social inertia.
Open to conflict
Emphasis on unique individualistic traits/ behaviours
Predisposed to creativity
By virtue of being in a collectivistic culture,
are likely to be
“nice” agreeable people
who seek to avoid conflict and thus will find it
hard to behave like the dogmatic creator
This personality trait makes it
difficult for Asians to assert creativity
Negative view of conflicts
Cultural influences on creativity in the East and West
Individual differences in the tendency to engage in such creative and individuated behaviour derive from a fundamental tension between two different sets of needs
One is the
need for validation
and similarity with the social group and wider society.
the other is a countervailing
need for uniqueness
and differentiation from the social group and wider society
Ng Aik Kwang concluded that it is harder for Asians to be creative, as “we-ness” is valued over “I-ness” in a collectivistic culture. By contrast, it is easier for Westerners to be creative, as “I-ness” is valued over “we-ness” in an individualistic culture
Conceptions of selfhood in the East and West
To note. Self-construal is a constant interplay (i.e. we may have interdependent construal with family but exercise independent self-construal with friends)
Asians have an
of selfhood due to the emphasis on we-ness of the collectivistic culture
Westerner is socialised to be interdependent and communal.
Personal value conservative
“Eastern nightmare” involves a failure at connecting with others
The boundaries between self and society are permeable.
Focus on relationship
Focused on self- enhancement (Power and achievement)
Influences conformist behaviour
Avoidance conflict style
Westerners have an
due to the emphasis on I-ness in an individualistic culture.
Westerner is socialised to be independent and self-reliant.
Personal value: Liberal
“Western nightmare” involves a failure at achieving separation from
A concept of self marked by salinet boundaries between self and society
Focus on independent facts
Open and Liberal
Focused on Self-transcendence (Universalism/ benevolance)
Influences creative behaviour
Cultural differences between East and West
Western society is
, loosely-organised and egalitarian.
Asian society is
, tightly-organised and hierarchical.
Chapter 5: Mood, Madness & Creativity
Madness & creativity
Creativity is good for mental health rather than mental illness
Not all scholars agree with the thesis that there is an intimate relationship between creativity and psychopathology
Humanistic psychologists like Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow argue that creativity is good for mental health rather than mental illness.
(1976) asserts that we are born with an
innate actualising tendency
which motivates creative development. Under favourable socioenvironmental conditions, this actualising tendency will enable us to become a fully-functioning person who is open to experience and live in a creative and meaningful way.
(1968) asserts that creativity is
intrinsic to the healthy growth and development of the individual
Every individual has a basic set of needs which is ordered in a hierarchical way. Once the lower-level needs are satisfied, one will seek to satisfy the higher-level needs.
These higher needs are based on one’s being or existence as a person, so they are also known as “being-needs”. The person who successfully pursues these being-needs is self-actualised and creative
A little bit of madness can serve as a tonic for creativity
Certain mental disorders may be beneficial
– a mental disorder characterised by an elevated sense of energy, self-confidence and intellect. Such frenzied state allows for the proliferation of unconventional and original ideas.
. To ensure that an idea meets the constraint of real-world problems, the creator will have to tune out of such a frenzied state and engage a more reflective state. Such state of melancholic contemplation and pondering can be found in mild depression. This slowed-down state enables him to engage in a rational examination of the thoughts, observations and feelings generated during the more enthusiastic state of hypomania
Why are artists more troubled than scientists?
Science relies on predictability, replication and reliability
. Objectivity and proof are more important than personal meaning, aesthetic appeal or insights.
scientific profession is well structured
and are bounded by academic rules and regulations to ensure a high standard of mental rigour.
since the scientific profession places an emphasis on the impersonal and objective and police its disciplinary boundaries more tightly, it is
more likely to attract emotionally stable people
who have the capacity to focus on objective problems outside of themselves.
According to Ludwig (1992)
creative arts emphasize the creator’s subjective personal vision
of the world, Artists draw upon their own personal conflicts to generate ways of seeing existence and interpreting the human condition.
the artistic profession is not so able to police its professional border nor is it inclined to do so. Instead, it places a
higher premium on the product than on the creator.
Since the artistic profession places an emphasis on the subjective and existential and police its disciplinary boundaries more loosely, it is
more likely to attract
people who are by temperament or development more rebellious, eccentric,
anti-social, tough-minded or emotionally troubled.
No link between creativity and madness
Rothenberg (1990) argued against the idea of a mad genius by suggesting that their ability to conceive multiple concepts that are opposites or antitheses simultaneously (i.e. idea of a sad smile, or a dark star), can be attributed to
(ability to simultaneously produce and develop different conflicting thoughts)
Janusian thinking is an unusual thought process that is
healthy, active and intentional
, even though they are
not bounded by logic or reason
These thoughts should be
differentiated from the disorganised and random thinking
Failure to do so implies that we equate creativity with madness.
Three methodological approaches to madness & creativity
Psychometric study of ordinary creators
Besides the study of eminent creators who are living or dead, psychologists have shed light on the mad-genius controversy by conducting research on everyday creators
Psychoticism and creativity
Eysenck (1994) suggested that
recklessness, disregard for common sense
, inappropriate emotional expression and anti-social behaviour – is
associated with creativity and psychopathology
Although psychoticism can result in psychopathology, it can also lead to creativity because
creative and psychotic people
process information in a similar manner.
Specifically, they are
in the way they think. i.e., they have a
broad conception of what is relevant,
e.g., camel is seen as a relevant example of vehicle besides more common examples like car
Difference between psychotics and creative thinking
Prentky suggested that creative thinking can be differentiated from psychotic thinking by the
level of control
exerted by the individual
over his thought processes
creator is in control
of his thoughts whereas the
psychotic is overpowered
creative thinking is rational
, purposeful and directed towards a certain goal.
By contrast, psychotic thinking is capricious, haphazard and nonsensical.
Over inclusive thinking
Since creative individuals are
in their thinking, they have a
larger sample of ideas
on which to formulate a conclusion.
Consequently, they are able to come up with
more innovative and unusual ideas
To test this argument, Woody and Claridge (1977) administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and Wallach-Kogan Creativity Tests (WKCT) to undergraduates from Oxford University.
WKCT measures two aspects of creativity: fluency (number of creative responses) as well as originality (number of unique responses).
They found that both measures of
creativity are positively related to psychoticism
, with the originality measure having a higher correlation compared to the fluency measure.
Clinical study of contemporary creators
Clinical studies on contemporary creators support the findings based on the historiometry of genius.
Clinical studies on British writers
Another study of eminent British writers and artists examined the rates of treatment for affective illness within this creative group (Jamison, 1989).
38% of these highly creative individuals were treated for an affective illness.
Poets were most likely to have received medication for depression (33%) and they were the only ones to have received medical intervention for mania (17%).
novelists and poets
most frequently reported
elated mood states
, whereas the
playwrights and artists
were the most likely to report
severe mood swings.
Biographers reported no history of severe mood swings or elated states.
Clinical study on acclaimed writers.
One study of nationally-acclaimed
found a significantly
higher rate of affective disorders
in this group of creators compared to the matched controls (Andreasen, 1987).
First-degree relatives of these writers also displayed a disproportionate rate of depression.
Historical study of eminent creators
In his historical analysis on 1004 creative individuals, Ludwig found that these
twice as likely to suffer from mental illness
in comparison with the general population. (i.e. the more eminent the creator, the higher is the rate and intensity of his or her psychological disturbance).
Mental illness distribution
the amount of suffering is not equally distributed in this group of highly creative artists.
Artistic creators that
rely more on precision, reason and logic
– architects, designers, – are
less prone to psychological disturbances
. In comparison,
Artistic creators that
rely more on emotive expression
, personal experiences and vivid imagery as sources of inspiration – poets, novelist –
are more prone to fall mentally ill
Arts and mental illness
Ludwig also found that creative individuals in the
(music, theatre, arts) tend to suffer from
more types of mental illness
and do so over
of their lives.
By contrast, creative individuals in other professions (business, science, public life and so on) tend to suffer less.
Mood & creativity
2. Theories and models on mood & creativity
Dual pathway to creativity model
This model on mood and creativity is based on the activation hypothesis and mood-as-information model.
It proposes that creativity is a function of cognitive flexibility &/or cognitive perseverance.
To test the dual pathway to creativity model, Dreu, Baas and Nijstad (2008) conducted a set of studies in which different methods were used to manipulate mood, e.g., autobiographical memory tasks, completion of mood scales. Furthermore, different methods were used to operationalise creativity, e.g., brainstorming, category inclusion tasks, gestalt completion tests.
The findings were consistent with the dual pathway to creativity model.
Specifically, activating but not deactivating moods enhanced creativity
; activating positive moods enhanced creativity through higher levels of cognitive flexibility;
and activating negative moods enhanced creativity through increased perseverance.
2. Mood-as-information model
Based on the mood-as-information model, it proposes that the hedonic tone of the mood (positive versus negative)
achieved via cognitive flexibility or cognitive perseverance
affect enhances creativity via
. (i.e. Specifically, positive affect allows individuals to be inclusive in their thinking, to switch cognitive categories and to explore uncommon perspectives)
affect enhances creativity through
(i.e. , negative affect encourages risk aversion and bolsters detail-oriented, analytical processing)
1. Activation hypothesis
Based on the activation hypothesis, the dual pathway model proposes that the arousal level of the mood (activating versus deactivating)
determines whether creativity is produced
At moderate levels of arousal, individuals will be motivated to seek and integrate information and to consider multiple alternatives.
Regulatory focus theory
This theory proposes that creativity can be explained via the
interaction between the regulatory focus and arousal level
of the mood
activating moods that are promotion-focused
(e.g., joy, anger)
activating moods that are prevention-focused (e.g., fear, uneasiness) impede creativity.
that are promotion-focused (e.g., sadness, disappointment) or prevention-focused moods (e.g., calm, relaxed) have
little effect on creativity
Friedman and Forster (2001) tested the hypothesis that regulatory focus was related to creative performance. And
discovered that In the promotion focus condition, memory search for new responses was bolstered and creative insight and divergent thinking was promoted
. This was not the case in the prevention focus condition.
Differs from hedonistic views
The regulatory focus theory differs from those theoretical accounts of mood and creativity which are based on the hedonic tone of the mood.
For example, Isen would predict that calmness enhances creativity as it is a positive mood.
In contrast, the regulatory focus theory predicts that
only positive moods that are activating
(e.g., happiness) will have a significant
impact on creativity
; positive moods that are deactivating (e.g., calmness) will not have any significant impact on creativity
Hedonic contingency theory
This theory posits that there are
more mood-sabotaging tasks
for individuals who are
in a good mood
in comparison with those in a bad mood. Thus, people in a good mood often scrutinise
i.e., when one is happy many things can happen to make one feel less good. But when one is sad few things can happen to make one feel even worse.
hedonic contingency theory asserts that happy individuals seek to
generate creative responses
as a means of making the task more fun and interesting, thereby maintaining or
enhancing their positive mood.
Like the cognitive tuning model, the mood-as-input model also proposes that moods provide people with information.
But it goes one step further in asserting that the significance of this
information depends on the context
in which the mood is experienced or mood-in-context (Martin, 2001).
Where creativity is concerned, the mood-as-input model suggests that it is not the type of mood (positive or negative) that motivates one to be creative (Martin & Stoner, 1996).;
both positive and negative moods can motivate creativity, so long as the right context is established
Additionally, the mood-as-input model proposes that the mood we experience serves as an input or antecedent to goal-directed behaviour.
we regard negative moods as implying that we have not yet achieved our objectives
we regard positive moods as implying that we have achieved our objectives
A.K.A cognitive tuning model.
It proposes that positive and negative
moods result in different styles of information processing
, people tend to process information in a careful,
and vigilant way, avoiding risk-taking behaviours.
, people tend to process information in a carefree,
, engaging in novel and creative actions.
Friedman, Foster and Denzler (2007) confirmed this in his study.
Friedman, Foster and Denzler (2007) attempted a direct testing of the cognitive tuning model.
hypothesised that positive relative to negative moods
performance on those
tasks construed as fun
whereas negative relative to positive
performance on those
tasks construed as serious
As predicted, when the task set is framed as serious and performance standards and extrinsic rewards are emphasised, participants in a negative mood benefit from it.
By contrast, when the task set is framed as funny and enjoyment and intrinsic rewards are emphasised, those in a positive mood benefit from it.
The activation hypothesis proposes that a
moderate level of arousal/activation will enhance creative performance
(Baas, De Dreu & Nijstad, 2008). At a moderate level of arousal, individuals are activated to
seek and integrate information
and to consider multiple alternatives, e.g., person working on a project.
If the level of arousal is
, the person will be
in processing information, e.g., person sleeping on the bed.
If the level of arousal is
, the person will be
to process information, e.g., person sitting on a roller coaster. High arousal also increases the likelihood of the
dominant response rather than an innovative response
1. What is mood? How do psychologists conduct research on mood and
Mood is a type of affect or subjective feeling with two dimensions
Activation (High or low)
The other dimension is characterised by its state of arousal or activation.
Some mood states are associated with a
high level of activation, e.g., elated
Other mood states are associated with a
low level of activation, e.g., calm,
Hedonic valence (+ve or -ve)
One dimension is characterised by the
to which the
mood state is
(e.g., happy, joyous)
(e.g., sad, anxious).
Researching mood and creativity
Isen et al's Experimental study on mood and creativity
Isen and colleagues have conducted much research on mood and creativity. They utilise an experimental design in which they would recruit different types of respondents. These respondents would be randomly assigned to the experimental and control group.
Isen & colleagues would induce a mild positive affect in the first group of respondents but not the second group. This induction of positive affect is achieved in a variety of ways. i.e. receive a small gift, get a candy bar or watch a comedy show. After this mood induction respondents in the experimental and control group would complete a creative task.
Subsequently, a comparison of creative performance will be made between these two groups of respondents. If the experimental participants perform significantly better than the control participants in this creative task,
we can infer that good mood or
positive affect enhances creativity.
Positive affect and creativity
Relationship between Affect and creativity
Isen, Johnson, Mertz and Robinson (1985) suggested that when people experience
, they automatically gain
access to a richer/elaborate network
of material in their
This enabled the happy individuals to
engage in diverse interpretations
and organisations of material in memory.
In turn, this results in the
generation of new and novel responses
On the other hand,
less information is activated by bad mood
or negative affect.
In turn, this makes innovative combinations less probable because there is less information to work with.
Expanding the mood-creativity relationship:
When negative affect leads to creativity
Studies have shown that negative affect can enhance one’s creativity in certain situations. (i.e. in facing social rejection, personal distress, etc)
Negative mood =problem finding/solving
Negative mood triggers a state of problem finding/solving.
George and Zhou (2002) discovered that sometimes good mood fails to kindle creativity. This is because of positive mood signals that everything is going well. Thus, it may will not strongly motivate employees to seek for solutions.
signals that there are
in need of solutions.
Consequently, it may propel the unhappy employee to try to
make changes and stimulate creativity.
Empirical support that shows Positive affect leads to poor creativity
Kaufman and Vosburg (1997) showed that positive affect inhibits creativity through his study which requires participants to engage in problem-solving. It was discovered that the poorest problem solvers turned out to be the experimentally induced positive-mood participants, not the neutral-mood or negative-mood participants.
Isen and colleagues found that
enhances people's ability to see
alternative cognitive perspectives
strengthens their creative problem-solving