Types of Long Term Memory (Evaluation) (Strength - identifying different…
Types of Long Term Memory (Evaluation)
- episodic memory supported by case study
HM and Clive Wearing suffered from amnesia.
Difficulty recalling events that had happened to them in the past.
Semantic memory unaffected
Couldn't recall stroking a dog half hour ago but still knew what a dog was.
Supports view that there a different memory stores in LTM
One store damaged but others left unaffected.
- brain scans shows there are different LTM stores
Tulving et al. - ppts performed various memory tasks while brains were scanned with PET scanner.
Episodic and semantic memories in prefrontal cortex
Semantic - left side
Episodic - right side
Shows different stores of LTM physically in brain
Confirmed in many research studies
Supporting its validity
- identifying different stores has real life application
Psychologists can target certain kinds of memory to improve people's lives.
Belleville found episodic memories can be improved in older people with mild cognitive impairments
Training led to improvements
Benefit of distinguishing between stores
Allows specific treatment to be developed.
- problems with clinical evidence
Evidence often based on clinical cases (HM and Clive Wearing) about what happens when memory is damaged
Lack of control of variables - can't control precise location of brain damage
Difficult to generalise to determine exact nature of LTM.
- may only be two types of LTM
Cohen and Squire argued that episodic and semantic memories are stored together
One LTM store called declarative memory (memories that can be consciously recalled)
Agree procedural is distinctively different - non-declarative.