Chapter 3: Teaching Speaking to Young Learners (The Development of…
Chapter 3: Teaching Speaking to Young Learners
What is Speaking?
Speaking are utterances that are made form words and phrases.
Background to the Teaching of Speaking
Finger plays, simple chants and rhymes with hand or finger motion.
Children can create their own verses or version of songs and finger plays = innovation.
Classroom and techniques and activities
Audio lingual Method (AML)
: language can be learned by developing habits based on patterns of language. (Behaviorism/ Stimulate - Response)
Sometimes drills can become
but a solution is to
when children repeat the lines of a poem or song.
Using puppets to introduce dialogues
: provide learners with grammatical controlled scripts that they can do in real life.
: provide learners with grammatically controlled scripts that they can do in real life.
: the teacher models the activity that children are expected to do while everyone in the class watches as if the teacher and the volunteer were in a fishbowl. Then children go back to their knowing what they need to do.
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
: is an approach that connects classroom-based language learning with the learners need in order to communicate outside of the classroom. (connect classroom learning to the real-life child-focused situation where children use language).
: give advantages of both ALM and CLT. For instance, yo can set up games that children can repeat the same patterns over and over again.
Talking and Writing Box
Focus: getting the message across and helping children acquire
: Rhymes, finger-plays, chants, and tongue twisters help children with pronunciation.
Con: Difficulty teaching accurate grammar. The solution is to
simplify the grammar
: handle errors by modeling and providing children with the correct grammar or pronunciation. Also, do not dampen the children's enthusiasm.
The Development of Speaking Skills
Mean length of utterances (MLU)
: are number of morphemes found in a sample of a child's utterances.
Pronunciation and young learners
: children sometime have difficulty articulating specific phonomes such as /th/ or /r/.
Avoid unrealistic expectations
: expectation for children learning ESL or EFL should
be greater than the expectation for children learning to speak English.
Over generalization of errors
Managing Speaking Activities
Do not try to shout rather develop a
to get children to be quiet and listen to instructor instructions.
Give one instruction and wait to observe that everyone is on task and then give the next instruction.
Speaking in the Classroom
Children's coursebooks often help children practice specific language patterns and pre-scripted conversations.