digestive/ urinary system (GI tract organs (large intestine (Absorbs water…
digestive/ urinary system
GI tract organs
Absorbs water and forms feces
makes bile, breaks down and eliminates toxins, such as nitrogen containing compounds
A muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.
An organ of the digestive system where most mechanical breaking down of food happens
Long hollow tube where most absorption of nutrients occurs
An organs in the abdominal cavity with two roles. The first is to produce digestive enzymes . The second is to secrete insulin into the bloodstream to help regulate blood glucose levels.
An organ that stores bile and releases it as needed into the small intestine
stores solid waste and compresses into more solid form
A small, fingerlike extension off the large intestine; it contains a mass of white blood cells that contribute to immunity.
oral cavity organs
Ingestion and fragmentation of food
Fragmentation and swallowing
where digestion begins
Fragmentation of food
Tissue at the back of the roof of the mouth; separates the mouth from the nasopharynx
Bony structure that forms the roof of the mouth
crushing, mashing or breaking down food into smaller pieces
breaking down food with enzymes
function of DS
Carries urine from kidney to urinary bladder
tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
saclike organ in which urine is stored before being excreted; secretes urine
Filters urea from blood
Functional unit of the kidney
pathway through the excretory system
A muscular opening at the end of the rectum through which waste material is eliminated from the body.
A short tube at the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid form before being eliminated.
first section of the large intestine and is connected to the ileum of the small intestine
small projection in the cecum
colon extends down the left side of the body
extends across the abdomen, below the liver and stomach and above the small intestine
continues up on the right side of the body from the cecum to the lower part of the liver
an S-shaped section that joins with the rectum
The first 9-10 inches of the small intestine. It is involved in both the chemical digestion of food and its absorption into the blood stream.
approximately 8 feet in length and forms the middle section of the small intestine
final 12 feet of the small intestine, and it connects with the large intestine at the cecum
alimentary canal layers
second layer of alimentary canal; contains major blood vessels and nerve supply
two layer of smooth muscles; needed for peristalsis and segementation
most superficial layer of the alimentary canal; functions to protect and for production of fluids to reduce friction; non-keritanized squamous epithelium
deepest layer of the alimentary canal; produces fluid for lubrication
circular muscle between the stomach and small intestine, keeps food in the stomach until the food is ready to enter the small intestine
circular muscle between the esophagus and stomach, closes after food enters the stomach and prevents food from going back up into the esophagus
circular muscle between the small and the large intestine; prevents food from cecum enter back into the ileum
This is where filtered fluids exit the nephrons
small structures that contain strings of nephrons and tubules
The hilum is a small opening located on the inner edge of the kidney, where it curves inward to create its distinct beanlike shape
small cup-shaped spaces that collect fluid before it moves into the bladder
outer part of the kidney. It contains the glomerulus and convoluted tubules.
brings oxygenated blood from the heart to the kidney for filtration.
The Bowman capsule. The remaining fluid, called capsular urine, passes through the Bowman capsule into the renal tubules.
This is a cluster of capillaries that absorb protein from blood traveling through the renal corpuscle.
carries filtered blood from the kidneys back to the heart
Loop of Henle
This section further absorbs potassium, chloride, and sodium into the blood.
Proximal convoluted tubule
This section absorbs water, sodium, and glucose back into the blood.
Distal convoluted tubule
This section absorbs more sodium into the blood and takes in potassium and acid
Nephrons are the most important part of each kidney. They take in blood, metabolize nutrients, and help pass out waste products from filtered blood
presence of kidney stones
urinary tract infections
infection in any part of your urinary system: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.
When your kidneys fail, it means they have stopped working well enough for you to survive without dialysis or a kidney transplant.
a raised level in the blood of urea and other nitrogenous waste compounds that are normally eliminated by the kidneys.
chronic kidney disease
gradual loss of kidney function over time
affects the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the ring of muscle between the esophagus and stomach
inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It causes inflammation of your digestive tract, which can lead to abdominal pain
the skin, whites of the eyes and mucous membranes turn yellow because of a high level of bilirubin
inflammation of the appendix,
inflammation of the stomach and intestines, typically resulting from bacterial toxins or viral infection and causing vomiting and diarrhea.
immune disease in which people can't eat gluten because it will damage their small intestine.