Ecology (Competition (Habitat- place where organism lives. Population-…
Habitat- place where organism lives.
Population- all organisms of one species living in a habitat.
Community- Population of different species living in a habitat.
Abiotic- non-living e.g. temperature
Biotic- living e.g. food
Ecosystem- interaction of a community of living organisms with non-living parts of environment.
Organisms compete to survive- plants: light, space, water mineral ions from soil. Animals: space, territory, food, water and mates.
Interdependence- a community of each species depending on each other- change in environment can affect this; as well as food chain.
Stable community- size of population of all species remain relatively constant overtime.
Biodiversity and waste management
Biodiversity- variety of different species of organisms on Earth or within ecosystem.
High biodiversity important to maintain stable ecosystem- different species depend on each each other for shelter and food. Also maintain right physical environment for each other e.g. acidity of soil.
Biodiversity important for human survival. Waste production, deforestation and global warming reducing biodiversity.
Modern medicine and farming methods- less likely to die of disease and hunger- big impact on environment we live in; increased population so human activity has more widespread effect.
Higher standard of living- raw material usage and energy for manufacturing process- taking more resources from environment- running out.
More waste, waste chemicals, and harmful pollution reduces biodiversity.
Water- sewage and toxic chemicals from industry. Pollute lakes, rivers, oceans- affects plants and animals that rely on them for survival. Chemicals used on land washed into water.
Land- toxic chemicals for farming, nuclear waste underground, household waste in landfills.
Air- smoke, acidic gases pollute air e.g. sulfur dioxide causes acid rain.
Producer :arrow_right: primary consumer :arrow_right: secondary consumer :arrow_right: tertiary consumer
Predator- consumers that hunt, kill and eat other animals.
Prey- hunted and killed for food by predators.
Predator-prey cycles are always out of phase with each other- takes time for 1 population to respond to changes in another.
Biomass- mass of living material in an organism.
10% rule- when energy is passed in an ecosystem from one trophic level to the next, only 10% of the energy will be passed on.
Trophic level- position of an organism in a food chain or energy pyramid.
Deforestation and land use
Land used for building, quarrying, farming and dumping waste- less for other organisms.
Deforestation- cutting down of trees on a large scale- clear land for farming (grow food from which bio fuels based on ethanol can be produced).
As photosynthesis reduced, less CO2 taken in and more released when trees burned to clear space. Microorganisms feeding on dead wood release CO2 as waste product of respiration. Reduces biodiversity as loss of habitat means species become extinct.
Bogs- area of land that are acidic and water logged. Plants that live in logs don't fully decay when die as not enough O2- build up to form peat. Carbon in plant stored in peat instead of atmosphere- bogs drained so area used as farmland or peat cut up and dried for fuel. Sold to gardeners as compost. When peat drained, comes into contact with air and some microorganisms decompose it- respire use O2 and release CO2- global warming. CO2 released when peat used as fuel. Destroying bogs destroys habitats of plants, animals and microorganisms- reduce biodiversity.
Maintaining ecosystem and biodiversity
Breeding programmes- prevent endangered species from becoming extinct. Animals breed in captivity to ensure survival- Can be released into wild to boost or re-establish population.
Programmes to protect and regenerate rare habitats. Protects species and preserves ecosystems and biodiversity in area.
Programmes to reintroduce hedgegrows and field margins around farms where single type of crop is grown. Field margin- areas of land around edge of field; wild flowers and grass. Provide habitat for wider variety of organisms that could survive in single crop habitat.
Government regulation reduce levels of deforestation and CO2 by businesses.
Recycle to reduce waste in landfill sites- leaving ecosystems in place.
Protecting biodiversity costs money- pay farmers to introduce hedgegrows and ensure rules are followed; money prioritised over protecting biodiversity.
Could affect jobs- people in tree-felling industry unemployed- affect economy.
Some microorganisms seen as pests and killed to protect crops and livestock- affect food chain and biodiversity.
Land in high demand so areas with high biodiversity destroyed for houses or agriculture.
Structural- body structure; shape, colour
Behavioural- many species migrate to warmer climates during winter to avoid issues of living in cold conditions.
Functional- inside organsms body to relate to processes e.g. reproduction, metabolism.
Extremophiles; adapted to live in extreme conditions- high temperature, high salt concentration, high pressure.
Temperature of Earth is balance between energy from Sun and energy it radiates back out into space. Gases in atmosphere act like insulating layer; absorb most energy that normally is radiated out into space and re-radiated in all directions including Earth- increases temperature.
Increase in CO2 and CH4- Earth is heating up- global warming. Type of climate change. Causes:
Higher temperature- seawater to expand and melt ice; sea levels rise. Lead to flooding and loss of habitat.
Distribution of wild animals and plant species may change as temperature increases and amount of rainfall changes in different areas. Species with warmer climate spread further as conditions they thrive in is widespread. Other species less distributed- cooler temperatures will have smaller range.
Change in migration patterns- migrate away or towards warmer areas.
Reduce in biodiversity- speies unable to survive change in climate- extinction.
Abiotic and biotic factors
Abiotic- moisture level, ight intensity, temperature, CO2 level (plants), wind intensity, O2 level, soil pH and mineral content.
Biotic- new predator, competition, new pathogen, availability of food.
The water cycle
1) Energy from Sun makes H2O evaporate from land and sea- water vapour.
2) H2O evaporates from plants- transpiration.
3) Water vapour carries upwards- cools, condenses to form clouds.
4) Precipitation onto land, provides fresh water for plants and animals.
5) Some water absorbed by soil and taken up by plant roots. Allows plants to photosynthesise. Some H2O part of plants tissues and passed to animals in food chain.
6) Animals return H2O to soil and atmosphere through excretion.
7) H2O runs off to streams and rivers.
8) H2O drains to sea, evaporates and cycle repeats.
The carbon cycle
1) CO2 removed from atmosphere by plants and algae during photosynthesis. CO2 used to make carbs, fats, protein- make up plants bodies.
2) Plants and algae respire- carbon returned to atmosphere; CO2.
3) Plant and algae eaten by animal- some carbon a part of nutrients in body.
4) Animals respire- carbon to CO2.
5) Plants, algae, animals die- other microorganisms feed on remains. Respire carbon to CO2.
6) Produce waste- broken down by detritus feeders and microorganisms.
7) Combustion- release of CO2.