3.economic changes over time (decline in secondary employment in urban…
3.economic changes over time
decline in primary employment in rural areas
By 1910, Cornwall was producing 50% of the world's china clay
, something in the region of 1 million tonnes every year, 75% of which was exported.
St Austell still has 50 years worth of clay left, but only 4 sites are open and majority has been abandoned.
huge reserves of
used to make porcalin. boomed in the 19th century, over 7000 workers.
WW2 meant the nation was dependent on farmers to provide food for the population. Productivity had to increase, which introduced subsides, new chemicals and mechanisation.
The agriculture workforce decreased by 20% between 1984-2009
, but labour input decreased by 40% due to technology.
why has the workforce declined?
large scale farming
year round crops
decline in secondary employment in urban areas
The Hay Inclined Plane was built in the late 18th century
, whole Shropshire area involved in industrial activity
competition from railways appeared, River Severn was no longer main transport route so ideal location to river was not a necessity.
factories closed down -> population decline -> service decline
IRA bombing or Arndale Shopping Centre and derelict industrial sites have been used to redesign multiple areas of the CBD.
public perception of Manchester remains high
, one of the reasons why their government have been able to attract grants and investment because of a longstanding positive perception of the city.
still have 33.3% of neighbourhoods in the bottom 20% most deprived in England.
east midlands coal industry
((brutal miners strike of 1984** escalated the decline
lack of political focus
, power and voice for the whole primary sector.
the coal industry didn't represent value for money - Russia was coming into the market with cheaper values.
- cultural loss, youth out migration, increasing dependency ratios
by 2010, the manpower of the coal industry was 1% of what it used to be in 1962.
structural changes in employment
clark fisher model
external forces and factors affecting economic restructuring
changing technologies and lifestyles
high employment opportunities, exchange of ideas
government policies/ strategies
global financial crisis of 2008/9 reduced production and economic opportunities
publicity to create image of modernity
reducing transport costs, data cables