Food Production-problems and solutions (Soil degradation (erosion, loss…
Food Production-problems and solutions
erosion, loss of fertility, salinization, water logging, desertification
Topsoil erosion, topsoil is the fertile top layer of many soils -stores most of the water and nutrients that plants need, provides other vital ecosystem services like nutrient recycling
soil erosion-is the movement of soil components, especially surface litter and topsoil from one place to another by the actions of wind and water.
sheet erosion, rill erosion, gully erosion
wind is the second largest cause of erosion, which loosens and blows topsoil particles away
soil erosion problems: loss of soil fertility, water pollution, release of carbon
Effects on water and air
water pollution: 60% of all water pollution, eroded topsoil flows as sediments into streams, lakes, and wetlands, where it can smother fish and shellfish and clog irrigation ditches, boat channels, reservoirs, and lakes.
poisonous pesticides will run off into water ways
Slash and burn: is a form of agriculture where the natural vegetation or the old crop stubs are cut down and burned as a method of clearing the land for cultivation, and then, when the plot becomes infertile, the farmer moves to a new fresh plot and does the same again.
Agriculture emits about 25% of the world's greenhouse gas
pest: any species that interferes with human welfare by competing with is for food, invading our homes or gardens, destroying building materials, spreading disease, invading ecosystems, or simply being a nuisance.
synthetic pesticides: when we interrupt ecosystems, we can't really on nature's pest control so we use synthetic pesticides are used like for example: insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides
biological controls (sex attractants, hormones)
ecological controls: polyculture provides habitat for the predators
cultivation controls: alternate crops from year to year so pest populations die out
pesticides can vary: some act against organisms, persistence: the length of time the pesticide remains deadly in the environment.
benefits: save human lives from insect-borne, increase food supplies, herbicides help reduce soil erosion, work fast, can be stored and shipped easily
problems: harm wildlife, kill natural predators and parasites that help control other pest population, applied inefficiently and pollute the environment, dangerous to human health, don't stay effective for long, expensive for farmers.
Sustainable agriculture practices
conserve topsoil, restore soil fertility, reduce soul salinization, reduce desertification, produce and consume meat, fish, and shellfish products more sustainably, expand organic agriculture
Many people choose to have one or more meatless days a week: protein-rich foods such as peas, beans, lentils
protect mangrove forests and estuaries, improve management of wastes, reduce the escape of aquaculture species into the wild, set up self-sustaining polyaquaculture systems that combine aquatic plants, fish, and shellfish, certify sustainable forms of aquaculture
Builds soul organic matter instead of depleting it, reduces erosion, reduces water pollution-no pesticides, use less fossil fuel energy-reduces greenhouse emissions
emphazises prevention of soil erosion and the use of organic fertilizers such as animal manure and compost but no sewage sludge, to supply plant nutrients, employs crop rotation and biological pest control, uses no genetically modified seeds, reduces fossil fuel use and increases use of renewable energy such as solar and wind power for generating electricity
produces less air and water pollution and greenhouse gases, is regionally and locally oriented, uses no antibiotics or growth hormones to produce meat and meat products
it isn't perfect: some nutrients from fertilizers can still leach into the groundwater, large scale composting creates greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide, getting rid of weeds by ploughing can damage soil and lead to soil erosion
sustainable meat production practices
meat production requires a huge amount of agriculture to produce feed, but there are even more problems like habitat destruction, overgrazing, water consumption, water pollution, climate change
huge amounts of water are used to irrigate the crops that feed livestock, livestock waste is washed away straight into waterways, meat production= more greenhouse gases than all of the world's vehicles combined.
fisheries: overexploitation-targeted species like tuna and cod are dwindling in number.
problems with aquaculture: farmed fish can be contaminated by pesticides meant to kill water pests or leached from farm soils.