Food Production- Nutrition and Types of Agriculture (nutrition and…
Food Production- Nutrition and Types of Agriculture
nutrition and malnutrition
macronutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
micronutrients: vitamins A, B, C, and E and minerals such as iron, iodine, and calcium
Undernutrition and malnutrition:
-people who cannot grow or buy enough food to meet their basic energy needs suffer from chronic undernutrition or hunger
-people who can afford a diet that provides enough energy but that is low in protein and other key nutrients suffer from malnutrition
Hunger is decreasing, but it still kills many
According to the United Nations there were about 800 million chronically undernourished or malnourished people in the world.
According to the World Health Organization: about 2 billion people suffer from a deficiency of one or more vitamins and minerals.
Poverty is the root cause of hunger and malnutrition
food deserts are where people are far from where food is grown/raised
overnutrition occurs when food energy intake> energy use, cause excess body fat. Too many calories, too little exercise, or both can cause overnutrition
daily access to enough nutritious food and live healthy lives.
Crop Production: Traditional vs industrialized vs organic
croplands: produce grains
rangelands, pastures, and feedlots: produce meat and meat products
fisheries and aquaculture: supply fish and shellfish
Traditional subsistence agriculture: combines energy from the sun with the labor of humans and draft animals to produce enough crops Traditional intensive agriculture: where farmer try to obtain higher crop yields by increasing their inputs of human and draft animal labor, animal manure for fertilizer and water
Traifitional agriculture: Benefits- often grows various crops side by side in the same place-polyculture
often organic: natural fertilizxers like animal manure and vegetable waste
Slash and burn: involves burning small plots in tropical forests, growing a variety of crops for a few years until the soil is depleted of nutrients, and then shifting to other plots to begin the process again
industrialized agriculture: irrigation, synthetic fertilizers, synthetic pesticides
Genetically modified crops
crossbreeding: uses artificial selection to develop genetically improved varieties of crops and livestock animals.
genetic engineering: alters an organism's genetic material by adding, deleting, or changing segments of its DNA. The resulting organisms are called (GMOs)
Most widely consumed meats are: pork, poultry, and beef
Meat production will likely double again by 2050 as incomes rise in rapidly developing countries.
industrialized meat production: half of the world's meat comes from livestock grazing on grass in unfenced rangelands and enclosed pastures.
feedlots: outdoor intense feeding
Factory farms: huge buildings of crowded pens and cages
animals are fed grain, soybeans, fishmeal, or fish oil, growth hormones and antibiotics which accelerate livestock growth
Fish and Shellfish production-fisheries and aquaculture
fishery: is a concentration of a particular aquatic species suitable for commercial harvesting in a given ocean area or inland body of water
aquaculture or fish farming: is the practice of raising fish in freshwater ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and rice paddies, and in underwater cages in coastal and deep ocean water.