Sexuality & Gender (Sexual Response (Types of Sex (Manual sex, Vaginal…
Sexuality & Gender
Sexually Transmitted Infections
In US: more than 1.2 million people living with HIV
Probably a vast underestimate
Many HIV infections remain undiagnosed or unreported
Nearly 13% are unaware of their infection status
sexually transmitted viral disorder that causes deterioration of the immune system
Mighteventually result in death due to complicating infections that the body can no longer fight
Caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)
Common examples: genital herpes (herpes simplex virus) and genital warts (human papillomavirus)
Can lead to complications, such as increased risk of cancer
Cannot be cured
Treatable with antibiotics
Common examples: chlamydia, syphilis, and gonorrhea
Sexually transmitted infections (STI) can affect the sexual organs and the ability to reproduce
May result in pain, disfigurement, and even death
Types of Sex
Vaginal sex (including PIV sex)
Phase 4: Resolution
Body is returned to a normal state
Phase 1: Excitement
Beginning of sexual arousal
Phase 3: Orgasm
Shortest phase of sexual response
Series of rhythmic contractions of muscles of vaginal walls or penis
Phase 2: Plateau
Physical changes beginning in first stage continue
Understanding Sexual Orientation
Cultural bias of assuming people are straight until learning otherwise
Coming out is often an on-going and life-long process
Sexual behavior ≠ sexual orientation
Sexual behavior does not determine sexual orientation
Sexual orientation can be fluid
Different historical perspectives
Homosexual/ gay / lesbian
The Psychological Side of Human Sexuality: Gender
CULTURE AND GENDER
have less wealth, although even in these cultures, women were more likely to be less traditional than men
have fairly high standards of living are becoming more nontraditional, especially for women in those cultures.
recent research suggests that in the past few decades a change has occurred in cultures that are of different “personalities.”
pressure that can be brought to bear on a person who does not conform to these expectations can be tremendous.
influenced by the pressures of society
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
researchers concluded that the male brain’s enhanced reaction might be a product of natural selection, as early human males who could quickly recognize a sexually receptive female would have had a greater opportunity to mate and pass on their genes to their offspring.
researchers found that the amygdala and hypothalamus areas of the limbic system (areas involved in emotional and sexual responses) were more strongly active in men than in women who viewed the pictures
Another study examined the way in which men and women respond to visual sexual stimuli and found that although men and women may report being equally aroused by erotic pictures, what happens in their brains is quite different (Hamann et al., 2004).
Some researchers believe that exposure to these hormones during fetal development not only causes the formation of the sexual organs but also predisposes the infant to behavior that is typically associated with one gender or the other.
is influenced by both biological and environmental factors (in the form of parenting and other child-rearing behaviors)
sense of be- ing male or female
process by which people learn their culture’s preferences and expectations for male and female behavior
culture’s expectations for behavior of a person who is perceived as male or female, including attitudes, actions, and personality traits associated with a particular gender within that culture
Sex and Gender
as a psychological/sociocultural phenomenon
Components of gender
personal knowledge of own gender
Presentation/expression may or may not reflect identity
he way a person looks, dresses, and/or acts
psychological aspects of being a woman, a man, non-binary, etc.
agender, genderqueer, etc.
transmen, cismen, etc.
transwomen, ciswomen, etc.
Gender is diverse and multi-faceted!
Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
There are exactly two genders, and gender is solely determined by biological sex at birth
as biological phenomenon
There are exactly two biological sexes, and those sexes are solely genetically determined
Biological sex is more of a spectrum than a binary
So-called “sex chromosomes” are only part of the story
Sex is usually assigned at birth based on the appearance of an infant’s genitals
Ambiguous →assigned intersex / DSD
Penis →assigned male
Vagina →assigned female
The Physical Side of Human Sexuality
Secondary sex characteristics
sex organs and traits that develop at puberty and are indirectly involved in human reproduction
breast development, menstruation
acne, pubic hair, enlargement of genitals
beard, voice change, ejaculation
Primary sex characteristics
as the embryo is growing in the womb as a result of the chromosomes contained within the embryonic cells as well as hormonal influences.
sex organs present at birth and directly involved in human reproduction
penis, testes, prostate gland
vulva, vagina, uterus, ovaries