Reproductive System (Disorders of the reproductive system (Prostate cancer…
Disorders of the reproductive system
Prostate cancer - Cancer of the prostate gland.
Breast cancer - Cancer of the mammary gland.
Ovarian cancer - Cancer of the ovary.
Penile cancer - Cancer of the penis.
Uterine cancer - Cancer of the uterus.
Testicular cancer - Cancer of the testicle
Impotence - The inability of a male to produce or maintain an erection.
Hypogonadism - A lack of function of the gonads, in regards to either hormones or gamete production.
Ectopic pregnancy - When a fertilized ovum is implanted in any tissue other than the uterine wall.
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder - A low level of sexual desire and interest.
Female sexual arousal disorder - A condition of decreased, insufficient, or absent lubrication in females during sexual activity
Premature ejaculation - A lack of voluntary control over ejaculation.
Dysmenorrhea - Is a medical condition of pain during menstruation that interferes with daily activities
Kallmann syndrome - Genetic disorder causing decreased functioning of the sex hormone-producing glands caused by a deficiency or both testes from the scrotum.
Androgen insensitivity syndrome - A genetic disorder causing people who are genetically male (i.e. XY chromosome pair) to develop sexually as a female due to an inability to utilize androgen.
Intersexuality - A person who has genitalia and/or other sexual traits which are not clearly male or female.
Hormones of the
Testosterone, the hormone responsible for the secondary sexual characteristics that develop in the male during adolescence, stimulates spermatogenesis.
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), causing maturation of an egg in the ovary.
Luteinising hormone (LH) stimulating the release of the egg.
Oestrogen and progesterone are involved in maintaining the uterus lining.
Estrogen is the reproductive hormone in females that assists in endometrial regrowth, ovulation, and calcium absorption; it is also responsible for the secondary sexual characteristics of females.
Progesterone assists in endometrial re-growth and inhibition of FSH and LH release.
FSH and LH affect reproductive structures to cause the formation of sperm and the preparation of eggs for release and possible fertilization.
LH and FSH are produced in the pituitary, and estradiol and progesterone are produced in the ovaries.
Estradiol and progesterone secreted from the corpus luteum cause the endometrium to thicken.
Both progesterone and estradiol are produced by the follicles.
Secretion of GnRH by the hypothalamus is inhibited by low levels of estradiol but stimulated by high levels of estradiol.
Progesterone levels rise during the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle and the secretory phase of the uterine cycle.
Menstruation occurs just after LH and FSH levels peak.
Menstruation occurs after progesterone levels drop.
Estrogen levels rise before ovulation, while progesterone levels rise after.
Events of the female hormonal cycles
Menstruation is the elimination of the thickened lining of the uterus (endometrium) from the body through the vagina. Menstrual fluid contains blood, cells from the lining of the uterus (endometrial cells) and mucus. The average length of a period is between three days and one week.
the follicular phase
The follicular phase starts on the first day of menstruation and ends with ovulation. Prompted by the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland releases follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). This hormone stimulates the ovary to produce around five to 20 follicles (tiny nodules or cysts), which bead on the surface.
Ovulation is the release of a mature egg from the surface of the ovary. This usually occurs mid-cycle, around two weeks or so before menstruation starts.
During the follicular phase, the developing follicle causes a rise in the level of oestrogen. The hypothalamus in the brain recognises these rising levels and releases a chemical called gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH). This hormone prompts the pituitary gland to produce raised levels of luteinising hormone (LH) and FSH.
the luteal phase.
During ovulation, the egg bursts from its follicle, but the ruptured follicle stays on the surface of the ovary. For the next two weeks or so, the follicle transforms into a structure known as the corpus luteum. This structure starts releasing progesterone, along with small amounts of oestrogen. This combination of hormones maintains the thickened lining of the uterus, waiting for a fertilised egg to stick (implant).
Major functions of the
These glands produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. This fluid serves to lubricate the urethra and to neutralize any acidity that may be present due to residual drops of urine in the urethra.
To produce, maintain, and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and protective fluid (semen)
To discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract during sex
To produce and secrete male sex hormones responsible for maintaining the male reproductive system
Epididymis: The epididymis is a long, coiled tube that rests on the backside of each testicle. It transports and stores sperm cells that are produced in the testes. It also is the job of the epididymis to bring the sperm to maturity, since the sperm that emerge from the testes are immature and incapable of fertilization. During sexual arousal, contractions force the sperm into the vas deferens.
Vas deferens: The vas deferens is a long, muscular tube that travels from the epididymis into the pelvic cavity, to just behind the bladder. The vas deferens transports mature sperm to the urethra, the tube that carries urine or sperm to outside of the body, in preparation for ejaculation.
Ejaculatory ducts: These are formed by the fusion of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. The ejaculatory ducts empty into the urethra.
Urethra: The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body. In males, it has the additional function of ejaculating semen when the man reaches orgasm. When the penis is erect during sex, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.
The female reproductive system is designed to carry out several functions.
It produces the female egg cells necessary for reproduction, called the ova or oocytes.
The system is designed to transport the ova to the site of fertilization. Conception, the fertilization of an egg by a sperm, normally occurs in the fallopian tubes.
The next step for the fertilized egg is to implant into the walls of the uterus, beginning the initial stages of pregnancy.
If fertilization and/or implantation does not take place, the system is designed to menstruate (the monthly shedding of the uterine lining).
In addition, the female reproductive system produces female sex hormones that maintain the reproductive cycle.
The function of the external female reproductive structures (the genitals) is twofold: To enable sperm to enter the body and to protect the internal genital organs from infectious organisms.
Anatomy of male and female reproductive structures
It is the lower most part of the uterus and is made up of strong muscles. The function of the cervix is to allow flow of menstrual blood from the uterus into the vagina, and direct the sperms into the uterus during intercourse.
The ovaries are small, oval-shaped glands that are located on either side of the uterus. The ovaries produce eggs and hormones.
These are narrow tubes that are attached to the upper part of the uterus and serve as tunnels for the ova (egg cells) to travel from the ovaries to the uterus.
The rounded mass of fatty tissue lying over the joint of the pubic bones, in women typically more prominent and also called the mons Veneris.
The uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ that is the home to a developing fetus. The uterus is divided into two parts: the cervix, which is the lower part that opens into the vagina, and the main body of the uterus, called the corpus.
The Labia Majora (labia majora pudendi) are two prominent longitudinal cutaneous folds which extend downward and backward from the mons pubis and form the lateral boundaries of a fissure or cleft, the pudendal cleft or rima, into which the vagina and urethra open.
The vagina is a canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of uterus) to the outside of the body.
The labia majora enclose and protect the other external reproductive organs. Literally translated as "large lips," the labia majora are relatively large and fleshy, and are comparable to the scrotum in males.
Literally translated as "small lips," the labia minora can be very small or up to 2 inches wide. They lie just inside the labia majora, and surround the openings to the vagina (the canal that joins the lower part of the uterus to the outside of the body) and urethra.
The vulva is the outer part of the female genitals. The vulva includes the opening of the vagina (sometimes called the vestibule), the labia majora (outer lips), the labia minora (inner lips), and the clitoris.
These glands are located beside the vaginal opening and produce a fluid (mucus) secretion.
The two labia minora meet at the clitoris, a small, sensitive protrusion that is comparable to the penis in males. The clitoris is covered by a fold of skin, called the prepuce, which is similar to the foreskin at the end of the penis.
The penis is the male organ for sexual intercourse. It has three parts: the root, which attaches to the wall of the abdomen; the body, or shaft; and the glans, which is the cone-shaped end of the penis
The scrotum is the loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind the penis. It contains the testicles (also called testes), as well as many nerves and blood vessels. The scrotum has a protective function and acts as a climate control system for the testes.
The testes are oval organs about the size of very large olives that lie in the scrotum, secured at either end by a structure called the spermatic cord. Most men have two testes. The testes are responsible for making testosterone.
The epididymis is a long, coiled tube that rests on the backside of each testicle. It functions in the carrying and storage of the sperm cells that are produced in the testes.
The vas deferens is a long, muscular tube that travels from the epididymis into the pelvic cavity, to just behind the bladder. The vas deferens transports mature sperm to the urethra in preparation for ejaculation.
The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body. In males, it has the additional function of expelling (ejaculating) semen when the man reaches orgasm.