Theories and Models for Designing Instruction (Gagné's Nine Events of…
Theories and Models for Designing Instruction
The ADDIE Model
Analysis-gathering data to identify specific needs—the who, what, where, when, and why of the design
Design- create a blueprint with all the specifications necessary to complete the project-- The foundation consists of goals, objectives, and evaluation tasks that must be developed and their sequence
Development- pilot testing
Implementation-At implementation, the design plan meets the learner, and the content is delivered. The Level 1 (reaction) evaluation process occurs at this stage
Gagné's Nine Events of Instruction
Inform learners of the objectives
Stimulate recall of prior knowledge
Present the stimulus (content
. Provide learning guidance
Elicit performance (practice)
Enhance retention and transfer
Rapid Instructional Design
depends on two types of trade-offs. The first is between the design and delivery of learning.
prototyping is a tool used in RID
Carl Rogers's theory of learner-centered instruction
paradigm shift from a teaching emphasis to a learning emphasis as indicated in the following key tenet
The learner is responsible for learning.
The teacher becomes a facilitator of learning.
The relationship between learners and facilitators is equal
Participation is necessary for learning to occur
Establish the initial mood or climate
Designers can organize the widest possible range of resource for learners and the facilitator to use
"A person cannot teach another person directly; a person can only facilitate another's learning
"A person learns significantly only those things that are perceived as being involved in the maintenance of or enhancement of the structure of self." Therefore, provide facilitators with suggestions for how to help learners see the WIIFM
designers build in time for open discussion, so differing ideas and past experience can be shared.
"The structure and organization of self appears to become more rigid under threats and to relax its boundaries when completely free from threat." When designers ensure that time is planned to create a welcoming, friendly environment, it decreases the threat.
The educational situation that most effectively promotes significant learning is one in which (a) threat to the self of the learner is reduced to a minimum and (b) differentiated perception of the field is facilitated." Therefore, designers can add discussion questions that help the facilitator be a guide, not an expert; this helps learners to better understand the content.
Theory of Behavioral Objectives (Mager)--
These instructional objectives, also known as behavioral or performance objectives, relate directly to Gagné's second event of instruction (to inform learners of objectives).
a performance statement
--to find techniques that enable them to learn better-Accelerated learning involves the right and left hemispheres, the cortex, and the limbic systems of the brain in learning
Beliefs about learning
Learning readiness state