My Final Map Findings 7 (Readings and Findings #7: Social Justice…
My Final Map Findings 7
What Does It Mean to “Go for Broke” for all Children in Urban Schools?
““Going for broke” means doing whatever it takes to shine the brightest lights on educational inequities experienced by poor children, African American and other children of color, children identified with disabilities, and children affected by the intersection of all of these issues.” (Blanchett, 2009, p. 385)
"high-stakes testing, inadequately prepared teachers, culturally unresponsive curriculum, and No Child Left Behind"
The Reality of Special Education in Practice for African American Students
“…few urban educators have acknowledged the experiences of students of color labeled as having disabilities as they have addressed some of the most significant issues and challenges facing students in urban settings, a disproportionate percentage of whom are poor, African American, and Hispanic” (371).
Again, this contributes to the overrepresentation of PoC in special ed.
The Original Intent of Special Education in Theory and Practice
“Moreover, research suggests that the benefits of inclusion are significant for all students. Students with disabilities who are included in general education classrooms have higher levels of social skills, are more accepted by their nondisabled peers, and have greater exposure to the general education curriculum” (Blanchett, 2009, pp. 376).
Who Are the Real Beneficiaries of Failed Urban Schools and Resegregation?
University/school partnerships with urban schools are seen as a business that "pimps" out the urban school.
“A lot of the blame for the current state of urban education has been placed on failed urban school districts, and although I believe that some of it is justified, I caution us to remember that urban school districts and systems do not operate in a vacuum and are in fact often a microcosm of the larger American society.” (Blanchett, 2009, p. 382)
A Historical Analysis of Brown’s Relationship to and Effect on Special Education
“In addition to prohibiting racial segregation in public education, the Brown decision was especially important in securing appropriate educational services and opportunities for students with disabilities.” (Blanchett, 2009, p. 372)
When students with disabilities were served, they were often educated in “ghetto like” isolated and “run-down” classrooms within buildings that housed students without disabilities or in separate facilities altogether. Such terms as ghetto-like and run-down have often been used to describe the physical environments of some of the segregated schools," (Blanchett, 373)
Brown v. Board challenged the constitutionality of "separate but equal"
From Bown to the Legal Resegregation of African American Students Through Special Education Placement
IDEA is the most important education legislation for students with disabilities
“They called attention to the fact that African American children were labeled as mildly mentally retarded and their White peers not labeled at all, even when White children evidenced more visibly obvious disabilities than the African American students.” (Blanchett, 2009, p. 380)
African American Students are more likely to be segregated and not be placed in general education
Was legal through special education placement
More African American students were labeled as needing special education in order to keep them segregated
PAST KNOWLEDGE: I have read multiple articles discussing the overrepresentation of PoC in special education.
“...the enhancement of higher performing students could have a positive impact on everyone, as national economic growth stemming from their success could trickle down and provide much-needed economic resources for their lower performing counterparts. Thus, making interventions available to all students may be expected to elevate more of a nation’s top students into the level considered critical for that nation’s future economic success—despite the possibility that any gaps existing between that nation’s haves and have-nots may be widened as a result of universalizing the intervention” (157).
If interventions were universally provided to students regardless of their SES and how they are doing, I feel like this would just widen the gap and make standards higher.
It would be like taking one step forward and two steps back
“Specifically, disadvantaged students use computers for isolated skill development and remediation, whereas students of higher SES use computers for more independent and creative projects” (155).
increasing the achievement gap
the availability of technology and funding for technology definitely contribute to the achievement gap.
“AP offerings were never intended to narrow the gap between advantaged and disadvantaged students” (155).
"Because of the self-selection process involved in deciding to take AP courses, this intervention was primarily utilized by the highest per- forming groups of achievers” (155).
AP and CCP offered at lower and higher SES schools
“The result is that children from advantaged families can be expected to utilize such interventions more frequently and, as a result, advantaged families benefit more from them, thereby widening any preexisting gaps” (154).
In class Vrooman even said that they offer for students to revise submitted assignments to get complete credit, but the students that actually need to do that, don't.
“In an ideal world, most people would wish for interventions of these kinds to be universally available to all who could benefit from them” (159).
Hytten and Kelly Divvy
Social Justice Defintion
justice in terms of the distribution of wealth, opportunities, and privileges within a society.
. Rizvi (1998) argues that “the immediate difficulty one confronts when examining the idea of social justice is the fact that it does not have a single essential meaning"
Teacher perspectives on engaging students w social justice
Social Justice Oriented Teachers. The participants who espoused an anti-oppression approach, by contrast, saw that their pedagogical decisions (and non-decisions) either supported or challenged the inequitable status quo. They did not want to feign neutrality; instead, they desired to model inquiry and engagement while ensuring that their viewpoints were open to student critique.
FRUITFUL: If I am interpreting this quote correctly, I like that they used the term "neutrality." This suggests that the teacher would not be pushing opinions, but rather staying neutral to the topic.
Non political teachers-The issue of children’s ability to form their own opinion—captured in everyday metaphors of children as “sponges,” “blank slates,” and “parrots” versus the less common image of children as active meaning-makers—is crucial. These assumptions about children helped to shape how the participants interpreted their role as teachers. The more they expressed concerns about “tainting” students with their opinions, the more likely they were to espouse a position of teacher neutrality (an impossible and undesirable fiction, for reasons we outlined earlier) and to steer away from social justice teaching.
DISSATISFIED: I do not like this statement only because it suggests that teachers will taint their students with their own personal opinions.
Teaching about social justice does not involve hate, but just informing the students that the world is not always fair and equitable for everyone
Children have a certain way about them that make them different from anything else in society. They are so open and different in the world it's amazing.
Due to this amount of openness that they have, it should be easier to teach them about social justice earlier, because they will absorb in more easily.
This could help them develop into better people earlier on.
Many teachers said that protecting childhood innocence would not influence their choice of topic but, rather, their approach to it. They emphasized tailoring their approach based on their knowledge of, and time with, the children. Kelly, D. M., & Brooks, M. Pg. 208
The issue of children’s ability to form their own opinion—captured in everyday metaphors of children as “sponges,” “blank slates,” and “parrots” versus the less common image of children as active meaning-makers—is crucial. These assumptions about children helped to shape how the participants interpreted their role as teachers. Kelly, D. M., & Brooks, M. Pg. 209
Readings and Findings #7: Social Justice Throughout the Curriculum
“Children enter preschool not ‘as empty slates but rather bring with them a myriad of perceptions of difference that they have taken up from their families, peers, the media and other social sources and negotiated in the representations of their own identities’”
DISSATISFIED:I personally don't believe in "blank slate" Not even when they're first born. They are born into things, like poverty, low class, family problems like drug addiction Their slate is already full..
“The ﬁrst element involves teachers in a critical analysis of social and institutional inequities and oppression based on gender, race, culture, sexuality, social class, ability, age, and so on” (Kelly & Brooks, 2009, pp. 203).
Teaching social justice requires classroom discussion. Also it requires teachers to be up to date with current social issues.
I think this is needed in classrooms. I support.
Focus on Children's innocence. Is teaching social justice going to ruin children's view of the world?
“When teachers are sensitive to countering oppression, many such “teachable moments” as Kelly described will arise in and around the classroom.
“’I would rather that I deprive them of a little bit of their innocence in an educated and prudent way,’ explained Amanda, ‘rather than have it be drastically ripped off of them by some other person who does something to them, or you know tells them something in a way that they can’t handle because it’s too much all at once.’”
I think that they would actually still be innocent but this would just make them more cultured and socially aware.
, when the participants talked about childhood innocence, they seemed to be invoking the notion of children as blank slates
Thats because they aren't blank slates, They have a whole home life that we do not know about.
Focus on the different definitions of social justice. Many people believe that social justice is very important but their definitions of social justice are different.
Teaching for Social Justice
“The second element is a commitment to principled action to achieve social justice."
“Underpinning this is a view of democratic citizenship as deliberative and action-oriented.”
“Anti- oppression educators work to create classrooms where their students can think about where they stand on social issues and what they might do to ameliorate suffering and inequities among groups of people with whom they are familiar as well as those with whom they have had little or no contact."
“Teaching for social justice necessarily entails classroom discussions of inequities and injustice. A commonly expressed concern is that such a focus will simply make children feel badly or lead to harmful and divisive talk.”
I think that it is possible that it could be harmful. I think that educators should be informed on how to conduct this conversation to prevent the harm
This was also an argument in the movie we watched about Ethnic studies in schools.
“The third element is the understanding that teaching and learning are social practices mediated by language and shifting social and historical contexts.”
“Allied to this is a view of people’s identities as culturally produced within relations of power. The identities of children and youth, for example, have been historically constructed in dominant culture as opposite to that of adults (irrational, emotional, ignorant, carefree, etc.), and this construction has then been used to legit- imate curtailing their self-determination (e.g., power over what and how they learn in school).”
We should not only learn about the dominant culture. We should learn about all cultures. This country is a melting pot.
“To say that children’s identities are culturally produced also emphasizes that they are active in this process, not just passively taught ideas and values by adults, as they are conceived in socialization theory."
DIVVY Findings #7: Cherng & Abdullah
Abdullah, S. A., Llanes, J. R. & Henry, D. ---- White disadvantage: The effects of racial isolation on White Pre-Service Teachers.
White Disadvantage: The Effects of Racial Isolation on White Pre-Service Teachers
“Fifty years after school desegregation, white middle class students are still being raised in racially segregated schools (Orfield, & Lee 2007), attending segregated social and religious institutions and having little or no experience with members of other racial groups.” (Abdullah, S. A., Llanes, J. R. & Henry, D. p.34).
“Pre-service teachers most naturally bring their life experiences and prior classroom experiences as students into their initial teaching practice.” (Abdullah, S. A., Llanes, J. R. & Henry, D. p.34).
Early national studies of Federal Programs observed cross-cultural classroom behavior and noted that white children were given more access by white teachers while children of color were kept away (Stallings, 1980),
This seems wrong to me. We need to integrate students together racially.
Values and morals are connected with race and economic status.
It seems like a lot of things in today's world revolves around socioeconomic status which is then linked with race.
One student discussed how grateful they were for their upbringing because it seems to have helped them avoid the phenomenon of white disadvantage. “From kindergarten through eighth grade I attended a Catholic school, where the majority of students were white. I am so grateful that my parents decided to send me to a public high school because it opened my eyes to so many different views and cultures.” (Abdullah et al. 2015, p. 39)
Cherng, H. S., & Halpin, P. F. --- The importance of minority teachers: Student perceptions of minority versus white teachers.
“ In the end, minority teachers, who likely possess tools to form strong ties with students, can help empower youth of all racial/ethnic identities.” (Cherng, H. S., & Halpin, P. F. p.11).
I am not trying to be that person and be offended, but I think that it is very broad to think that all white people cannot connect as well with students.
Personally, I grew up in Cleveland in a neighborhood and school where I was surrounded by black and latino people with a few white people integrated in. I think that I am cultured due to this and can connect with a diverse group.
I feel like it is based more off of where you come from.
“We also find mixed evidence that perceptions of minority students depend on the race/ethnicity of their teacher: Black students have particularly favorable perceptions of Black teachers, but the same is not true for Latino students and Latino teachers” (Cherng, H. S., & Halpin, P. F. p.6).
A Demographic Divide: The Importance of Racial/ Ethnic Mismatch in Teacher and Student Populations
“Scholars have argued that positive student-teacher race matching effects may be explained in part by students having more favorable perceptions of minority teachers” (Cherng, H. S., & Halpin, P. F. p.2).
“Although previous research has addressed teachers’ perceptions of students and explored questions of race matching, relatively little work has explicitly addressed whether students, and especially minority students, have more favorable perceptions of minority versus non-minority teachers.” (Cherng,2016, pg 2)
I personally agree with this. The more cultured and socially aware a teacher is, the more I connect. Whether they are a minority because they are a woman, lgbt,, or race wise, I connect more
“Teachers have higher expectations of White and Asian American students and lower expectations of Latino and Black students” (Cherng, H. S., & Halpin, P. F. p.2).
“This approach also allowed for examination of whether students have more favorable perceptions of co-racial/ethnic teachers by the inclusion of interactions terms between student and teacher race/ethnicity” (Cherng,2016, pg 5)
“ female students also have more favorable perceptions of teachers across six of the seven outcome measures (the exception is control, for which girls are similar in their perceptions to boys)” (Cherng, H. S., & Halpin, P. F. p.5).
All Students respond better to minority teachers
“In general, minority students have more positive perceptions of their teachers than White students” (Cherng,2016, pg 5)
Lewis McCoy - Making Public Schools Private
Often parents engage with the school in order to monitor a child’s academic progress and maintain a supple relationship with the school; they can also use their presence in and familiarity with the school as a basis for leveraging more educational resources for their children
Nearly all parents are interested in their children getting a quality education, but not all parents are able to influence their children’s educational pathway
In the article it discussed how lower class families do not have as much time to do this.
This desire to increase the chances of their child’s success cut across social class and race.
Avoiding/Petitioning to Avoid Ms. Baker
Through weak social ties, discussion of Ms. Baker’s alleged transgressions traveled and ultimately coalesced into an actionable concern.18 Parental disquiet was formalized by the creation of a petition that was circulated among Cherry Elementary parents
Several parents repeated the rumors of Ms. Baker’s past absences to me, and a few even said that she had been chronically absent in the present academic year
If this teacher were a white woman, I really feel like they would not treat her this way.
he petition featured two demands:
(1) the investigation of Ms. Baker and
(2) assurance that the children of the parents who signed the petition would not be assigned to Ms. Baker’s classroom, regardless of the results of the investigation
A Relational Model Of Parental Engagement
Schools are complex organizations with unique cultures that help shape and structure parental engagement. It is not enough to have a parent who is interested in being engaged; schools and their staff shape and broker what is appropriate or desirable parental engagement.
formal rules can include school-wide policies such as how to request a teacher or classroom-level policies such as when baked goods can be brought to school. At the school level, formal rules are created by building administrators or dictated by the central administration
Some parents often take over the involvement and want to be the number one parent and have their kid be the best though.
information is a crucial resource that can be a gateway to other education- related opportunities. The structure of networks and the information that was transmitted to families allowed them to gain access to official school- related events as well as to information that was not official but was meaningful
lower income parents do not always have time to do all of the extra curriculars that higher income families can do.
PAST KNOWLEDGE: A lot of the parents that involved themselves in my school were typically white, stay at home moms from the middle class. It is because they actually have the time to immerse themselves in their Childs education.
My mom was a single mom and worked all the time, so she never involved herself like a lot of other parents did.
based analysis of race-related issues that I subscribe to would discuss the relevance of race, not just to black families but aiso to white families, as they operate in the same spaces and attempt similar tasks, like educational customization
“Their parents just don’t care.”
In the article it described how the parents do care, they just do not feel as welcome.
I have a theory that black students often do not perform as well, because historically, black people were allowed to have an education A LOT later in history than white people. They may be behind still in their opinions and feelings about school. We are only ahead because we have had it longer. I am not sure. I think about this a lot though.
Natural Growth Concerted Cultivation
Socioeconomic Status Race Gender Family Type
Formal and Informal Rules Local History
Teacher Selection and Community- School Connections
Rolling Acres schools in the primary grades did not offer gifted or accelerated courses or programs. As a result, parents who wanted to customize their children’s education often lobbied to get their child into a preferred teacher’s class
During my time in the field there was a consistent narrative among black and white administrators and teachers that low-income families, who were predominantly black, did not participate in school matters, despite outreach
One example in the reading was how one of the principles physically drove to the low income apartment complex for a meeting at that place and still, no one came.
I personally feel like it is a culture among that group that needs help being changed.