From The Civil Rights Movement to Black Power and Women's Liberation…
From The Civil Rights Movement to Black Power and Women's Liberation
Robyn Ceanne Spencer
Engendering the Black Freedom Struggle
Black power movement linked to manhood- leaves black women on the outskirts of the movement--does it marginalize them?
Tareka "Matilaba" Lewis=first person to demand a place within BPP for women
analyzes gender politics of the Black Panther Party- founded in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale as a "revolutionary nationalist organization aimed at challenging police brutality, poverty, and racial injustice" p92
"Pantherettes" female sector but dissolves in 1968--women in the mainstream, gender expectations and distribution of work within the movement
Eldridge Cleaver--convicted rapist takes control of BPP after founders placed in prison (Soul on Ice-about raping women)
Marries Kathleen Neal an organizer from SNCC--turns BPP around becomes the "Ella Baker"
image of the revolutionary black woman--creation of strong empowered "public Kathleen Cleaver while victimized Cleaver remains "private"
"For men who, often for the first time in their lives, exercised extraordinary power over others, sexism became a tool of sexual dominance over subordinates" p.102
p 108 "the Black Panther Party's record on gender is complex"
Sherie M. Randolph
"Women's Liberation or...Black Liberation, You're Fighting the Same Enemies"
Black Power movement was connected to feminist radicalism--Flo was a black feminist and a black nationalist, worked to conquer all forms of exploitation
"argued that the United States was monopolized by white power, which had historically served to keep African Americans from true liberation" p.231
Florynce "Flo" Kennedy (1916-2000) Black feminist lawyer 60s-70s most well-known black feminist but erased from history and marginalized
relationship feminist movement, try to keep women out of black power movement, white women fail to see intersection of oppressions for black women
"Kennedy's story also demonstrates that while sixties movements and organizations often erected walls, those boundaries were far more porous than scholars have previously conceived" p.243
"I am a Revolutionary Black Woman" Angela Davis
1970-communist party--fired from job arrested for "kidnapping, conspiracy and murder"
mass movement to win her freedom--international
released in 1972
"have to destroy the capitalist system" p.460
need allies to destroy capitalism-which will lead to liberation/ending of oppression
fight for liberation of women must be embraced by men as well