Explanations For Forgetting: Retrieval Failure (Evaluation (Retrieval…
Explanations For Forgetting: Retrieval Failure
Retrieval failure explains interference effects
The danger of circularity
Retrieval cues do not always work
There is a lot of research support
Cues- are things that serve as a reminder. They may meaningfully link to the material to be remembered or may not be meaningfully linked, such as environmental cues (a room) or cues related to your mental state (being or sad or drunk).
Retrieval failure- occurs due to the absence of cues. An explanation for forgetting based on the idea that the issue relates to being able to retrieve a memory that there is there (available) but not accessible. Retrieval depends on using cues.
Description of retrieval failure
The recall stores are suggesting that information learned when drunk is more available when in the same state later.
Goodwin et al. asked male volunteers to remember a list of words when they were either drunk or sober. The ppts were asked to recall the lists after 24 hours when some were sober but others had to get drunk again.
Context dependent forgetting
There was slight changes when the test took place like a different instructor and changed some of he results of the students
Abernathy arranged a group of students to be tested before a certain course began.
The encoding specificity principle
Whenever information is learned, we also often remember where we are or how we felt.
In the free condition 40% of words were recalled on average,, whereas in the cued-recall condition recalled 60% of the words
Ppts either had to recall as many words as they could or they were given cues in the form of the category name.
Encoding is also available at the time of retrieval.
Tulving and Pearlstone demonstrated the value the retrieval cues in a study where ppts had to learn 48 words belonging to 12 categories.