:female_sign::male_sign: Differences & :boy::skin-tone-6: :girl::skin…
:female_sign::male_sign: Differences & :boy::skin-tone-6: :girl::skin-tone-2: Differences
Bias against women
Courts treat females more harshly
Women who don't conform are punished more harshly
Women who are jailed are assessed by how they are as wives, daughters & mothers
Courts punish girls for premature sexual activity
Women are not treated more leniently.
Ignores crime of the powerful
Court statistics give support to chivalry thesis.
Females are more likley to get a fine and released on bail.
Self report studies:
Female offenders are treated more leniently.
Men have protective attitudes towards women.
Males are more likely to repeat offences and have longer criminal careers
4/5 of convicted offenders are male.
Sex role theory
Looks at early socialisation
Patriarchal control reduces women's opportunity to commit crime.
Patriarchal control at work, finance & in public.
Women are more liberated. Therefore, crime is more frequent.
Women commit more 'male' offences.
Female crime was already rising before liberation movement
Female criminals are mostly WC
Carlen : Class & Gender deals
Study of 39, 15-46 WC women.
Convicted crimes: theft, fraud, drugs, prostitution, violence.
20 were in prison during this time.
Women fail to find legitimate ways of earning decent living.
Women don't have opportunity to make deal or saw rewards in family life.
Sees women's behaviour as determined by external forces
Ignores importance of free will & choice
Carlen's sample was small & unrepresentative
Females & violent crimes
Criminalisation of females
Rise in women's arrests due to justice system.
'Widening the net'
Professionals are influenced by moral panics created by media
Believe women's behaviour is getting worse
Gender & Victimisation
70% are males
Victims of violence
2% of women are victims
4% of men are victims
Fear or risk?
Women have greater fear
Women are less likely to be at risk of victimisation
Why do men commit crime?
Masculinity & crime
Masculinity is socially constructed
Assumes masculinity explains crime
Doesn't explain why not all men use crime to achieve masculinity
White MC youths
Subordinate themselves to teachers to achieve status
White WC youths
Less chance of educational success
Black lower WC youths
Few expectations of reasonable job and use gang violence to express masculinity
Winlow: Postmodernity, masculinity & crime
Study of bouncers in Sunderland
Working as bouncers provided paid work & opportunity for illegal ventures
'Looking the part'
Bouncers develop physical assets
Ethnicity & Criminalisation
Black people make up 3% of population
But make 13% of prison population
Alternative sources of statistics
Rely on victims memory
Only covers personal crimes
Excludes corporate crimes
Ethnicity, racism & criminal justice system
Philips & Bowling
Oppressive policing & minority ethnic communities
Stop & search
Ethnic minority groups are more likely to be stopped and searched
Terrorism Act 2000
Police can stop & search anybody or any vehicle.
Explaining stop & search patterns
Ethnic differences in offending
Arrests & cautions
Blacks 3 times as likely to get arrested than whites
Asians & blacks were less likely than whites to receive a caution
Prosecution & trial
Bowlings & Philips
Evidence presented by police is weaker
Ethnic minorities are less likely to be prosecuted
Convictions & sentencing
Blacks & Asians are less likely to be found guilty
Due to weaker cases
Risk assessment to help decide an appropriate sentence for offender
5.5 per 1,000 black people were in jail
1.6 per 1,000 Asian people were in jail
1.4 per 1,000 white people were in jail.
Statistics are valid
Statistics are socially constructed
Lea & Young
Ethnic differences reflect real differences in levels of offending
Arrest rate for Asians may be lower than blacks due to different stereotypes
Crime is a product of relative deprivation, subculture & marginalisation
Statistics don't reflect reality
Black criminality is a myth created by racist stereotypes
First-generation immigrants were law-abiding
Most crime is intra-ethnic
Asian crime rates are similar or lower than white
1970s saw moral panic over black 'muggers' that served interest of capitalism
No evidence of this
Don't show how capitalist crisis led to moral panic
No evidence about moral panic
Ethnicity & victimisation
Individual selected as a target due to race
Extent & risk of victimisation
Police recorded 54,000 racist incidents
Responses to victimisation
Members of ethnic minority communities respond through crime prevention measures