“The first moment introduced the discourse of school choice with the fight over Americanization during the 1920s. In the second, the rise of private school options and ‘freedom of choice’ plans used by whites to bypass court- ordered racial desegregation in the 1950s and 1960s associated school choice with self-segregation by whites. In the third moment, federal courts and local school systems turned to magnet schools and other forms of public school choice in pursuit of voluntary dimensions of racial desegregation from the 1970s until the Supreme Court curbed such efforts. In the fourth moment, longstanding constitutional campaigns to enable publicly financed vouchers to pay for religious schooling reached fruition in 2002. And, finally, during the early decades of this new century, proliferating experiments with charter schools, magnet schools, and other forms of choice present occasions for local, state, and national debate over whether to renew commitments to integration within schools across lines of race, religion, class, and other student differences or to promote plural kinds of schools that enable variety and competition as well as permit increasing separation of different kinds of students into different schools” (818).