Different lexical, syntactic and functional categories (Functional…
Different lexical, syntactic and functional categories
A lexical category is a syntactic category for elements that are part of the lexicon of a language. These elements are at the word level.
Noun: Person, place, or thing
Verb: Action, occurrence or state of being
Adjective: modifier that expresses quality, quantity or extent.
Adverb: modifier that expresses manner, quality, place, time, degree, number, cause, opposition, affirmation or denial
Preposition: modifier that indicates location or origin
they carry meaning,
A syntactic category is a set of words and/or phrases in a language which share a significant number of common characteristics. The classification is based on similar structure and sameness of distribution (the structural relationships between these elements and other items in a larger grammatical structure), and not on meaning. In generative grammar, a syntactic category is symbolized by a node label in a constituent structure tree.
All phrasal syntactic categories
Examples: NP (noun phrase), VP (verb phrase), PP (prepositional phrase)
Word-level syntactic categories that serve as heads of phrasal syntactic categories
Examples: noun, verb
Categories that do not project to a phrasal level
Examples: yes-no question markers
Functional category words are grouped together according to their grammatical function more than their meaning. That is, the functional categories are the categories that are low in meaning (hard to define) but high in grammar.
determiners, conjunctions, prepositions, and pronouns.
functional categories are mostly closed (you cannot add anything new)