Findings 8: Education During Slavery (Walker (“At the turn of the century…
Findings 8: Education During Slavery
In Black segregated schools, they did not have good resources. For example, teachers, transportation, gymnasiums, and other facilities
But they were offered extra curriciculars
An important one was having Negro history week where they learned about their own history.
“It is not generally known that by 1867 one-third of the 2087 teachers in the Freedmen's schools were themselves Blacks, and about 400 Southern whites were also employed.” (Erickson,1997)
“The few Black children who did attend schools in the North suffered prejudice, harassment, and poor treatment from their teachers. Negro parents objected strongly to segregated schools.” (Erickson,1997)
The greatest impetus to Black education came during and immediately after the Civil War. So many Blacks left the plantations to follow the Union armies that their generals were often overwhelmed. Schools were set up for Blacks of all ages, taught by chaplains and volunteer enlisted men.” (Erickson,1997)
“Blacks were sent to distant schools or excluded entirely if this enabled white children to enroll at closer ones. Many a Black grandparent today remembers walking to school and being passed by a school bus carrying white children.” (Erickson,1997)
“It is said that in Ohio the whites burned Black schools as fast as they could be built.” (Erickson,1997)
“Ignorance was the major control instrument of slavery. every master realized that he had to know almost everything, and the slaves had to know almost nothing.” (Erickson,1997)
African Americans were valued for their bodies rather than their minds
“At the turn of the century, race relations were said to be at a lower ebb than at any time during the 35 years of freedom (Woodward, 1974) and racial conflict was so heightened that the Klan reach its peak membership of (reportedly) five million.” (Walker,2000, pg 258)
“In 1919 during a summer hot with racial tension, 25 race riots occurred, so many so that it would be called the Red Summer.” (Walker,2000, pg 258)
• “As evidenced by the curriculum and extracurricular activities, the segregated school apparently supported the private and classroom messages of teachers and principal, reinforcing the aspirations that students could grow up to "be somebody." By "being somebody," the teachers and principals suggest that students were not to feel bound by the segregated world in which they lived, but were to be made to believe that if they worked hard enough they could "be anything they wanted to be."
“Anderson argues that the creation of a public school system in the South and the emergence of Black common schools were largely attributable to the interests of the ex-slaves in education as a means for liberation.” (Walker,2000, pg 257)
During this period, after another world war had helped to prompt new employment opportunities for African Americans in the larger society and increasing numbers of law suits were filed to challenge the separate but equal doctrine of Plessy, school boards began to respond to long-standing concerns of African American parents.” (Walker, 2000, p. 274)
In this view, the African American school is revealed, as Rodgers (1967) writes, as a "world of its own, with its own dynamic quality and its own ecological structure" (p. 1 !); it was "a complex, interdependent system" (p. 15).
Free blacks were just as restricted as slaves were. Neither of them were legally allowed to receive an education.
Even when Blacks were able to attend schools, they still suffered prejudice and discrimination
After that all Southern states discouraged the education of Blacks. Not until 1965 could most southern Blacks anticipate adequate schooling. Erickson, R. Pg. 206
The few Black children who did attend schools in the North suffered prejudice, harassment, and poor treatment from their teachers. Negro parents objected strongly to segregated schools. Inadequate as the non-segregated schools were likely to be, they were still better than the all-Black institutions. Often local antislavery societies and the miniscule educated and propertied Black caste would team up to pressure the power structure. Erickson, R. Pg. 209