Mao Zedong, Ammarah Mansoor, Alex Alanis (Aims and Results of Policies…
Mao Zedong, Ammarah Mansoor, Alex Alanis
Emergence of Authoritarian State
Weakness of Political System
Nationalist Party of China or GMD:
formed by Sun in 1912 through Three People's Principles: Nationalism, democracy and people's livelihood.
Double Ten Revolution
October 10, 1911: Led by Sun Yixiani's Revolutionary Alliance, overthrew Cixi.
ruled since 1644. Between 1867 and 1908, under the leadership of Dowager Empress Cixi, it was resistant to reform.
Build up to Civil War
military campaign launched by the Nationalist Party of China against the government in Beijing and warlords.
First United Front ~ 1924
: CPC forms an alliance with GMD to reduce foreign influence in China and bring an end to warlord power.
Nationalist Party of China
Jiang attacks communist in Shangai. Warlord Zhang Zuolin allies with Jiang and both determine to eliminate communists in China.
Japanese invade territory. Warlord Zhang requests Jiang for military aid to resist Japan but he refuses, knowing the Japanese forces are too strong -- Alliance between Jiang and Zhang ends.
succeeds Sun Yixian as leader of GMD after his death, in 1924. To demonstrate his claim as leader, Jiang got rid of the communist bloc in GMD and gained support of warlords and criminal organizations.
Extermination Campaigns 1930-34:
Aimed at eliminating communists in Jianxi soviet. Fifth campaign successful and imposed economic blockade.
Historic trek of the Chinese communists to Yan'an, which resulted in the relocation of the communist revolutionary base from southeastern to northwestern China and in the emergence of Mao Zedong as the undisputed party leader. 90% of the force had been lost.
Impact of War
World War One: 1917
Beijing declares war on Germany hoping the allies would return Chinese territories. However, allies give Japan the territories instead under the Treaty of Versailles.
May Fourth Movement: May 4, 1919
Around 3,000 angry students gather in Beijing to display their dissatisfaction of the ToV
Paris Peace Settlement
or ToV: Major Western powers at the end of WWI agree to Japan's claims to Shadong. Thousands of students marched and denounced the
Twenty one Demands:
Series of Japanese demands that would give Japan control of China. This led to increasing xenophobia.
Mao revised the Marxist-Leninist thought from 'bourgeoisie-proletarian' model to rural cities of China.
Consolidation of Maintenance and Power
Aftermath of Long March:
Mao's position as leader of communists had been consolidated, but still faced opposition. The Long March was symbolic to courage and stregth of the Red Army. Communists built up military base at Yan'an.
Second United Front ~ 1937:
CPC and GMD join together once again to resist Japanese aggression.
Impact of Foreign Policy
USA supports Jiang and the GMD because they are against communism. US at war with Japan after Pearl Harbor in 1941 and in order to assist the GMD, $500 million worth of military aid sent to China between 1942-45.
Jiang loses support from abroad after breaking the Second United Front. He became more dictatorial and increased inflation by constantly printing money. This led to an increase in taxes and China's intellectuals began to turn away to CCP.
Use of Force
Sino-Japanese War (1937-45):
Japan attacks China on July 1, 1937. Forces move south of Manchuria and capture Beijing and Nanjing.
Japanese treatment of Chinese civilian population is brutal. Forces move through town and rape, loot murder. Between 30,000 to 80,000 rapes committed.
Jiang breaks alliance with CCP in 1939 and ordered his troops to attack them. In 1941, GMD tried to annihilate the communist armies in the south and Jiang withdrew all financial support to Mao.
Civil War Breaks Out 1946
: GMD outnumbered CCP 4:1 but the communist control of the north and guerrilla warfare worked in their favor. CCP captured large amounts of weapons discarded by GMD soldiers.
End of War 1949:
Jiang resigns presidency and prepares to transfer to Taiwan.
China after 50 years, free from major internal and eternal conflict; however economically weak. May 1949, Mao establishes new currency introduced along with taxation.
PRC established on October 1, 1949
Treatment of Opposition
GMD flee to Taiwan after losing support in China. Those who remained were labeled as "enemies" and had no role in society.
Rectification Campaigns 1942:
Purging the party of undesirable elements and reeducating class enemies in prison camps.
Aims and Results of Policies
Marriage Reform law of 1950 had a great effect on the people of china especially women because both genders were in a union and agreed to be married and arranged marriages were no longer existent.
The Cultural Revolution 1966-76 Political movement in which the Communist party purged and insisted revolutionary values in the younger generation. Wanted to cleanse china of revisionist.
In 1966 Te Red Gaurds were encouraged to destroy the four olds culture, thought practice and customs.
Land Reform Act (June 1950) government encouraged collective farming- by 1952 production increased by 10%
Great Leap Forward 1958 involved creation of communes and there was no private land owned. People would be over reporting about the production in agriculture and lead to a famine and starvation.
Agricultural Producers Cooperatives (ACP) restarted in 1955 and land was no longer privately owned; profits were dependant on work.
Five year Plan (FYP) 1953-57 private industries and business were nationalized and other industries and roads were built.
overall economic policies were not successful and resulted in unstable industrialization, over reporting and famine that killed many
Policies impact on women and minorities
Women established basic human rights: they could not be sold into prostitution and unwanted babies could not be disposed of.
Women were allowed to own property and land, but this was soon replaced by collectivization
Mao gained the support of women and second life was improved for large number of people within china.
Foot binding died out by 1930 and by 1935 and by 1965 more institutions allowed girls for a higher education
GLF increased women in th work force on the country side by 50-60 percent
Establishment of CCP through a series of campaigns allowed for Mao to mobilize china in becoming a more authoritarian state.
Foriehn policies allowed for Mao to consolidate his power and maintain control
Chinese constitution 1954 was published upon peoples republic and organic law it enhanced governments power and authority and limited citizens freedom.
Hundred Flowers campaign 1957- censorship was lifted and intellectuals were encouraged to criticize the party >>> Mao turned matters around purges occur and 500,000 were sent to the countryside.
Three Antis Campaign 1951 Mao wanted to eliminate corruption, waste and obstructionist bureaucracy with the party itself. Many lost positions and punishments were extreme.
Five antis Campaign 1952 targeted capitalist class and it involved a war over the bourgeoisie in China